Let's try to recover from the relief and geological structure of the Arctic seas and adjacent land areas, where Hyperborea was located. Let’s first tentaticely assume that the 1554 map of Hyperborea by G. Mercator is correct.
Assumption 1. G. Mercator Map of Hyperborea is correct
A careful study of the maps of Hyperborea by G.Merkatora show a close agreement to the modern contours of the northern coasts of Europe and eastern Siberia, Alaska and Canada, as well as ice-free Greenland, Iceland, Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land, and in the middle of all these land masses in the middle of the Arctic Sea is Hyperborea, which is divided by rivers into four large islands and is bounded on all sides by a ring of mountains. This shape and location of Hyperborea almost certainly indicates that it existed until early Oligocene epoch (34 million years ago), when the outlines of the continents were close to modern and there were no large inland seas. Hyperborea existed no later than mid-to late Miocene epoch (16-10 million years ago), when the Arctic glaciation began. Hyperborea probably was located in the central part of the Arctic Ocean regardless of whether the geographic pole was located there or not. But, as I said in "The Seventh Continent - Hyperborea", throughout the history of the Cenozoic (from 66 million years ago), there could have been a large area of land.
Hence, the Hyperborea map of G. Mercator is not right or the continent was mistakenly placed in this location on the basis of some very famous ancient sources know to Merkator.
Assumption 2. G. Mercator Map of Hyperborea was not exact
Now let’s try to determine the location of Hyperborea on the assumption that the map of G. Mercator was not true, or not quite accurate.
As follows from the geological, lithological, paleogeographic and tectonic maps and maps of the bottom topography of the Arctic Ocean, throughout the Paleocene and possibly the beginning of the Eocene epoch (66-58 or 55 million years ago), this northern continent covered vast areas of the Arctic and North Atlantic. It included the territory of modern Greenland, Queen Elizabeth Islands, Iceland, the Yanmayenskogo Ridge and areas surrounbding Jan Mayen, the Greenland-Scotland Ridge, the Faroe, Shetland and Hebride Islands, the Orkney Islands, Rockall Plateau, the Norwegian, Greenland and Lofoten Basins, the islands of Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya, Severnaya Zemlya, the Siberian Islands, and, apparently, much of northern Europe and the European part of Russia. From the east, from the deep part of the Arctic Ocean (near Earth Elksmir) to Hyperborea, stretches from west to east of the Alpha Mendeleva Ridge were joined for a total length of over 1,500 km and a width of 250-800 km and the Lomonosov Ridge of 1800 km and a width of 60-200 km. Both existed in the Paleocene - Early Eocene time and their eastern ends, apparently, were Wrangell Island and the New Siberian Islands (see photo on page), which then joined with the north-eastern edge of Asia.
Hyperborea was separated from the mainland of North America by the deep basins of Baffin and Labrador, located on the outskirts of a Canadian shallow sea and deep Canadian Basin. In the west, Hyperborea bordered the North Atlantic Ocean, which began to open in the late Cretaceous period (120-110 million years ago).
Hyperborea bordered with East Asia (modern Middle plateau) along a broad shallow West Siberian Sea. In the east, Hyperborea appears to have been adjoined by land bridges formed by the Mendeleev and Lomonosov ridges to the edge of Asia along the modern Anadyr Plateau, Chukotka Peninsula, the Verkhoyansk Range and the Chersky Ridge. (see photo on page).
In the Eocene period (58 or 55 million years ago) there was a lowering of the center of Hyperborea in modern Greenland and the Norwegian and Lafontenskoy Basins and it was flooded by sea water. This lowering spread to northern Europe and the European part of Russia, and most of these areas were also covered with a shallow sea basin. The only elevated areas were Scotland, Norway and the Kola Peninsula, the Taimyr Peninsula, the other peninsulas of northern Eurasia and an individual uplift within Europe.
Merkator’s Map of Hyperborea – the map of the Arctic in the second half of the Eocene (45 - 40 million years ago), adjusted for a shift of the earth's axis
Hyperborea had a shape vaguely reminiscent of the contours found on the Mercator map. Elevated peripheral parts of Hyperborea covered the islands of Queen Elizabeth, Greenland, the Greenland-Scotland Ridge, Scotland, Scandinavia, New Earth, and most likely the Kara Sea, Taimyr Peninsula and the islands of Severnaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land and Spitsbergen. The inland sea of Hyperborea coincided with Greenland, Norwegian and Lafontenskoy basins. In all likelihood, it was closed in from all sides (interior drainage), was at first salty and then became a freshwater body, as shown by the determination of salinity in the Eocene and the fossil remains of fauna and flora. Desalination of this inland sea occurred in the late Lutetian age about 42 million years ago.
These closed sea basins, bounded on all sides by land, were (during the Eocene epoch) the Canadian Basin, Makarov, Amundsen and Nansen Arctic basin. According to the results of deep drilling on the Lomonosov Ridge and Alpha, the Polar Sea was then covered with a thick layer of the genus Azolla, resembling green duckweed which stifles modern suburban ponds. In addition, there were all sorts of other abundant vegetation, the settling of which led to the formation of thick layers enriched in organic sediments.
In the case of the Mercator map being correct, the Hyperborean North Pole was located in the vicinity of Jan Mayen, or some other portion of the Mona Ridge, ie approximately 70-75 ° N and somewhere between 10°W-10°E.
This means that the axis of rotation of Earth during the Eocene epoch could be shifted by approximately 20 ° to the south of its current position.
According to data presented in the Internet portal "Geography. Planet Earth ", the South Pole in the Paleogene (exact time not specified) was about 81 ° south lat. and 94 ° east long.
A more southern location of the North Pole in the Eocene time is consistent with the results of the study of the fossil flora, according to which the plant remains from the northern coasts of Europe and Asia existed during a warm temperate-subtropical climate, and plant remains found near the modern North Pole on the underwater Lomonosov Ridge, were common in subtropical-tropical climates.
The changing shape and area of Hyperborea in the Oligocene and Neogene (34-10 million years ago)
In the Oligocene epoch (from 34 million years ago) there was further subsidence of the Greenland, Norwegian and Lafontenskoy basins which increased the depth and area of the inland seas of Hyperborea. At the end of the Eocene epoch the area between Greenland and West Spitsbergen began spreading, and by the early Oligocene (about 34 million years ago), a deep connection was established between the central Arctic Ocean (Canada Basin, Makarov, Amundsen, Nansen) and the inland Hyperborean sea (Greenland Basin) to resemble the modern Fram Strait. At the same time, beginning in the Eocene and Oligocene epoch, there was an upwelling of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge, resulting primarily in a land bridge between Greenland and Scotland. Waters of the Atlantic at this time flowed into the inland sea of Hyperborea. However, most of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge and the underwater plateau Ermak (on Svalbard) remained above sea level until Langhian time (about 15 million years ago) (see photo on page)
Simultaneously there was uplifting in Siberia and the drying up of the West Siberian Sea. In the middle of the Oligocene epoch (about 30 million years ago), the whole vast area was marsh land, and its most elevated part was near the Arctic sea basin to the north. The territory of Europe also experienced a rise in the early Miocene epoch of the Neogene period (24 million years) and was completely transformed into land.
The rise of these territories, apparently, was linked to the collisions at the Hindustan margin of Asia and Africa to Northern Europe (40-20 million years ago).
As a result of the global redistribution of land and sea, areas previously held by Hyperborea in Scotland, Scandinavia and the Kola Peninsula and the other peninsulas become part of the Europe. Hyperborea retained only the Queen Elizabeth Islands, Greenland, part of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge and probably the Rockall Plateau. During the Paleogene period (from 66 to 24 million years) the area of Hyperborea was decreased by more than 4 times its original size.
To the east, Hyperborea was associated with three archipelagos of peninsulas and islands (ridges of Alpha Mendeleev University, Svalbard - Franz Josef Land and the Northern Land) from the edge of Asia.
The Neogene (Late Miocene) witnessed a further increase in the area of Arctic sea basins, accompanied by a gradual decrease in the land of the Hyperboreans. 10-16 million years ago, the area was also covered with ice.
© АV Koltypin, 2009
© LA Fitzpatrick, 2013 (translation)
We, A. Koltypin the author of this work, and L.Fitzpatrick the translator of this work, give permission to use this for any purpose except prohibited by applicable law, on condition that our authorship and hyperlink to the site http://earthbeforeflood.com is given
Read my works "Svarga (Jambudvipa, Hyperborea). The world where gods lived", "V.Perri. Forgotten world. A buried landscape of Atlantis (Hyperborea) is discovered?", "The earliest maps of Earth (Piri Reis, Oronce Fine, Gerardus Mercator, Philippe Bauche and other cartographers) were charted in the Palaeogene", "When did grow forests and flow rivers in Antarctica? Once again about the age of Piri Reis, Oronce Fine and Philippe Bauche' maps", "Where were the Islands of Immortals?" and other works, announced in "Hyperborea - Northern Native Land of Mankind"
Read also my work "The Moon - a fragment of Hyperborea!?" and "Earth in the Early Paleogene and the planet Uranus - twins, brothers? To what unexpected conclusions it is possible to come on a joint of astronomy, geology and folklore" (L Fitzpatrick's title "Earth in the early Paleogene and the Planet Uranus - Twin Brothers? Unexpected Conclusions based upon the Correlation of Astronomy, Geology and Folklore")