The underground cities of Cappadocia were built between 13 and 4 million years ago. The assumption needs to be confirmed by geological researches
Underground and Rocky Cities of Cappadocia (Turkey)" and looked photos with the comments presented after it and taken during our research in Cappadocia in April 2012 might have been caught the thought consistently developed by me that the majority of the underground structures of Cappadocia was constructed much earlier than archeologists and historians write about this. On the basis of age of host rocks (mainly tuffs and ignimbrites) determined by geologists between the Middle Miocene - early Pliocene (13-4,5 or 13-4 million years ago) and discordant bedding of these rocks and the overlap of Late Pliocene-Quaternary fluvial and lacustrine tuffaceous basic sediments and basalts, which substantially have no underground structures, I assumed that the most part of the underground and rocky cities of Cappadocia was built at those time. In several places we have established that these cities are underground structures uncovered by erosion.
However, I am aware that my findings are still only provisional. In order to confirm (or deny) them, it is necessary to take detailed research together with local Turkish geologists, "armed with" the latest geological maps, and to audit the age of the host rock of the underground cities. And above all – to check the age of tuffaceous basic sediments, which overlie on these underground structures with stratigraphic and often angular unconformity, and basalts, in which practically no underground structures were built. If it is confirmed that the underground cities have the Middle Miocene-Early Pliocene age, and tuffaceous basic sediments have the Late Pliocene - Quaternary age, then expressed my assumption that the underground and rocky cities of Cappadocia were constructed in the range of 13-4 million years ago, will become almost a reality.
The fact is that in some places we visited (I have tried to indicate this in my photoreport) it is well visible that the overlying "mute" deposits (without underground structures) are bedded on the lower formations (containing underground structures) with erosion and sometimes minor angular unconformity. This is irrefutable evidence that before the accumulation of the overlying deposits the area, which later became known as Cappadocia experienced the rise and erosion. And only after million or 1.5-2 million years (in the Late Pliocene, about 2.5 million years ago, maybe a little earlier, maybe a little later) the continental sedimentation resumed on it in the conditions of developing cavities filled with swamps, lakes and rivers.
Of course, many scholars who uphold the classical opinion on the age of underground structures of Cappadocia try to contradict me. They will say that the builders of underground and rock cities used amenable to cutting rocks as they were the Middle Miocene - Early Pliocene tuffs (ignimbrites). But overlying Pliocene-Quaternary or Quaternary basalts were very hard and labor-intensive processing. Then I ask them a counter question - why did not they use for their own purposes more easily amenable to cutting the Late Pliocene - Pleistocene tuffaceous basic sediments? Why did not they build the upper levels of the underground cities in them? Why do not we see any of the rooms carved into the rock, which would slash the boundary of discordant bedding of the Middle Miocene - Early Pliocene and the Late Pliocene - Quaternary volcanic and sedimentary rocks? Finally, where are piles of rocks from the construction of such a large number of underground cities? If they were built recently, the whole mountain dumps would have been around as in any field of minerals - and there are none at all. At the same time, the construction of underground cities in the Middle Pliocene (3,5-2,5 million years ago) before the getting up and eroding of areas can easily explain this phenomenon - all mountain dumps were washed away by the water of flood, traces of which are clearly visible in all visited underground areas (more on this later).
The rock cities of Cappadocia and outs of underground structures on the slopes are the remains of underground cities destroyed by erosion. Formation of the slopes continued 500 thousand - 1 million years
Despite the fact that the final answer on the age of the underground and rock cities of Cappadocia can be given only during the detailed geological field studies, something can be said about it now. In the sections "Rock city of Tatlarin" and "Rock city of Cavusin" there are convincing arguments of the fact that the underground rooms outcropped in rock cliffs are the remains of the upper levels of the underground cities, the lower levels of which (in Tatlarin) remained underground until now. Roughly the same pattern we have seen in Nevsehir, where we found entries in the outgoing deep underground city in different places of the hillside under houses destroyed by earthquake. All this suggests that the underground cities existed long ago and in the process of erosion and formation of mountains and slopes they got out to the surface.
Whether can erosion speed tell something about their age? I tried to solve this problem, but it appeared not such simple as it seemed in the beginning. I will begin with the fact that in different places the erosion proceeds with the different speed depending on very many factors (hardness of breeds, climate, character and amplitude of tectonic movements and other). Besides, the speed of erosion can change over time depending on the different reasons, for example, strengthening or slowdown of lithospheric plates (it is the actual reason for Cappadocia being on a joint of the Eurasian and African lithospheric plates). Therefore I had to use average empirical data on the speed of lifting of mountains (and erosion respectively).
Here they are. A summary of the many mountain countries gave a figure: 0.6-1 mm. per year. Czech scientist Z. Kukal has compiled data on the rate of growth of the mountains obtained by different authors and showed that the rate of growth of the mountains above 1 - 3 mm per year is the exception to the rule. Moreover, in certain intervals hill are lowering down, so the total growth rate is less.
In this connection, I had to use figures of 0.6-1 mm. per year. I did not have in my hand topographic map of Cappadocia, however, our observations and the literature gives reason to believe that the elevation of the mountains over the valleys in Çavuşin, Tatlarin and elsewhere is at least 500 meters. Let us now try to estimate how soon could such a mountainous terrain have formed (taking into account that before it was leveled surface, covered with lakes and marshes) - the so-called "peneplain."
For the beginning we’ll take the maximum speed of rising of mountains - 1 mm per year. The surface will rise up to 500 meters (and such excess amplitude) only after 500 thousand years. If the rate of rise was 0.6 mm per year - it would take about 1 million years. This was possible if during last 500,000 - 1 million years tectonic movement was only upward. If at some time this movement was another, the time required for the formation of such relief could be even more.
But these are details. The main thing is that after simple calculations I found that even in theory the underground cities of Cappadocia could not be built either in the I millennium BC, nor in the VIII millennium BC (or later). They were built at least hundreds of thousands - first millions of years ago. This age of underground cities of Cappadocia is in accordance with their age estimated according to geological data and the absence of any whatsoever dumps of rocks near them.
The nature of secondary changes of walls and underground/rock formations of Cappadocia also testifies that their formation occurred during hundreds of thousands - millions of yearsThere is another strong argument in favor of such an early time of the construction of underground cities of Cappadocia, which I have repeatedly noted with almost all presented sections. It is a high degree of secondary alteration of walls, ceilings, columns and other elements carved in stone in the underground structures of Turkey and also Israel. Experienced geologist who saw the rocks of different ages and visited natural caves can say that most of the walls of underground structures were subject to chemical aeration (or existed in the form which we see now) hundreds of thousands or millions of years ago. And most secondary formed minerals in the form of thin film or crust overlaid them have been appeared from hydrothermal solutions, where the temperature was above 50 ° C (not less than 25-30 ° C).
There are quite a lot of evidences of the ancient age of underground structures of Cappadocia and their repeated completion and restructuring
Thus, now there are many compelling evidences that the underground cities of Cappadocia were built in the middle Miocene - early Pliocene (13-4 million years ago). Then they were repeatedly completed. Ancient builders made small cavities in younger sediments and probably even carved in them quite suitable habitats (for example, in "earthen pyramids" or "fairy hills") and tombs. It is unknown when did they finished the carving. It is only obvious that all next underground structures were much smaller than previous underground cities. And the technique used by builders in reconstruction of the ancient underground cities and construction of new premises was rough (stone and metal chisels) and non-comparable with the high technology used by ancient builders. We had the opportunity to see this many times. I've seen this before in the underground structures in Israel and I described the effect of increasing diameter of the giant drill that bored bell caves.
Who were the builders of the underground cities of Cappadocia – gnomes or followers of the religion of sun gods with normal height and build, or both?
Which ancient civilization could create enormous underground structures in Cappadocia? In my work "When and who built underground-terrestrial megalithic complex of Israel?" I put forward the hypothesis that their builders were dwarfish people who lived underground - like gnomes and Сhude (queer people). I also noticed that the developing of majority of iron and copper deposits in the Urals is ascribed to Chude who lived underground. Then later these deposits anew were re-opened by Soviet geologists.
Structural features of the underground cities of Cappadocia, large number of transitions between rooms and tunnels length of 10-20 meters and height of 1-1.5 meters - all this confirms my hypothesis (extended to describe Israel's underground structures) that people of small stature were also the builders of underground structures of Cappadocia. But, apparently, they were not alone. When I visited the "throne room" and other underground areas of Rock City Cavusin I got the impression that they had been designed for people of normal physique. And symbols of sun which were carved in stone and found there indicate that the inhabitants of these caves were sun-worshipers or adherents of sun gods religion. In the underground city of Tatlarin there were toilets for people of normal physique.
On this basis, it can be assumed that the underground cities of Cappadocia were built and used by different people (or people predecessors) - religionists of sun gods of our physique and some pygmy people. Who was the first of them? I have no answer.
The annalistic story of Novgorodian Gyuryata Rogovich about Yugra land is like to the legend of Chude (Chud) and people of Sirtja who “had gone underground". This story is in the Laurentian list of "The Tales of Bygone Years" (1096) about the people with the unknown language, who was living in the depths of the mountains:
"Now I want to tell what had I heard 4 years ago and what did Gyuryata Rogovich, Novgorodian, told me: " I sent my teen son to the town of Pechora, to the people who give tribute to Novgorod. And my adolescent came to them, and from there he went to the land of. Yugra (Ugra. Yugra is a name of people and their language is unintelligible, and they are neighbors with samoyadya in the Nordic countries. Yugra told my lad: "we found a marvelous miracle that they have not heard before, and it started three years ago; and there are mountains, they go to the gulf sea and the height is such as they reach the sky, and there are call and sound of talking in the mountains, and they carve the mountain, trying to get out of it, and small window is carved in that mountain, and from there they say, but nobody understand their language, but they point out on iron and waving their hands, asking for iron; and if someone give them a knife or ax (pole axe) they give furs in return. The path to that mountains is impassable because of the precipices, snow and forest, and therefore it is not always reachable. But it goes further to the north". (Alexey Komogortsev “Mysterious Chude. Who were Chude’s metallurgists?”)
Is not it, this place is a bit like Cappadocia.
The underground cities of Cappadocia are refuges from disasters and floods
It can be more definitely said why did they built underground city. In the legends of almost people lived on the Earth it is said that after regular catastrophe and flood former inhabitants of the Earth fled underground, where they lived for a long time afterwards. After the wave of the flood receded, Vira Cocha and other deities were knocking on the covers of underground shelters, encouraging survivors to come again to the surface. Perhaps people who were taller and feel less comfortable underground came out. And their "little brothers" remained to live underground.
According to Nenets legend given in Ref A.Komogortsev "Mysterious Chude. Who were Chude’s metallurgists?", "Sirtjas (historical peoples and equivalent of the mythological Chude) became underground inhabitants, when there was a big water, flooded all the low-lying areas on the Yamal Peninsula. Bowels of lofty hills-“sede”(seda) became dwellings for Sirtjas". According to other traditions, "Sirtjas had gone into the hills" because the first earth was turned back side and advent of "real people "- the Nenets – had occurred. Being underground inhabitants Sirtias afraid to go out onto the daylight, from which they eyes burst. For them a day began to be considered as a night, and a night – as a day, because only at night they could go out of the hills when the vicinity was quiet and there were no people".
Evidence of the flood in the underground cities of Cappadocia
To confirm the version of the use of underground cities for refuge from catastrophes and floods, it is necessary only to find evidence of catastrophes and floods in them. I have already done it in my previous submitted works about the underground structures of Israel. Similar evidences are available in the underground cities of Turkey. First of all, this is a thin layer of calcareous (?) sediments with wavy-finned marks on the surface covering most of the underground cities. Such signs may be the traces of wave/surf activity or curra (traces of dissolved limestone). A comparison of them with each other strongly suggests that they are the first.
This means that water covered (in whole or in part, I cannot say) almost all underground structures of Cappadocia and it presented in them for a long time and left there crisp tracks. This is unlikely to happen before the last Flood dated 12 thousand years ago. Perhaps by this time the underground cities of Cappadocia had been long abandoned and so the water entered there. But the former inhabitants fled from earlier floods - 5.3 million years ago or 1.8 million years ago, or even from some floods (in the Pleistocene there were at least 5-15 floods). It is only relatively recently - in VIII, III, I millennium BC or in the first centuries AD underground structures of Cappadocia have been re-discovered, cleaned, partially reconstructed and again began to be used by people.
The above submitted hypothesis about the time of the construction of the underground cities of Cappadocia is based on a study of the actual material and it is not less scientific than most previously hypotheses stated by archaeologists and historians about the recent (at the latest I-III millennium BC) time of construction of underground cities. Moreover, it does not go away from explaining many moments which do not blend with these hypotheses (high degree of secondary alteration of walls, traces of wave/surf ripples on the floor, the unity of the underground and rock structures, the lack of waste rock, long tunnels height of 1-1.5 meters only, etc.). On the contrary my hypotheses actively use them as important arguments to confirm its right to exist. Sometimes it seems to me that the main arguments of supporters of the late construction of Cappadocia underground cities are the Darwinian Theory and traditional chronology of the appearance of man and humanity developed by archaeologists. All the contrary arguments are not taken into account. It's a pity, a real researcher must find an explanation of all the facts and if they do not fit into the dominant view he must review them immediately and not think about opinion of other scientists.
It would be so simple if someone having the weight in the world scientific community of scientists says out loudly that the age of an intelligent humanity descends far down - at least for the beginning, to the Neogene period. And he gives evidence presented abundantly in Cappadocia and Israel. And not only that. Geologists, miners and non-professional researchers from around the world regularly send me such evidences. It is necessary to recognize them but it remains only to close their eyes who do not want to recognize them.
In conclusion I give two more quotations from the work A. Komogortseva "Mysterious Chude. Who were Chude’s metallurgists?":
"According to legends, Sirtjas (historical equivalent of the mythological Chud) was small in stature, they said, stammering slightly, wore beautiful clothes with metal pendants. They had white eyes. High sand hills were houses for Sirtjas. They went out on the surface of the tundra at the night or in fog; they lived underground where they drove on dogs and herded mammoths "Yakhora" (earthen deer). Like to Chude Sirtjas were considered skilled blacksmiths and good soldiers”.
They "go under the earth along the river during the day and at night with the lights out and
go out to the lake and there are the wonderful light and great city over this lake. And any who
comes to that city can hear a big noise in the city as in the other cities where people live”.
The section "My explorations"
© A Koltypin, 2012
© P Oleksenko, 2013 (translation)
We, A. Koltypin the author of this work, and P.Oleksenko the translator of this work, give permission to use this for any purpose except prohibited by applicable law, on condition that our authorship and hyperlink to the site http://earthbeforeflood.com is given
I take this opportunity to thank Michael Zhernokleev for his assistance in explorations
Read also my work on the results of field explorations in 2012 "Who constructed the underground-terrestrial megalithic complex of Israel and when was it constructed?"