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When were rock and underground towns and structures of Mediterranean region built?
All that is said above is enough to understand mistakes in dating of rock-underground (under/above ground megalithic) complex, made when dating according to dwellings and structures built on it in different time with small stone blocks and also, according to period of time, when Canaanites, Jews, Hittites, Phrygians and other nations inhabited them. Let's talk about true age of this complex.
I touched this question in the above mentioned article ("Underwater-under/above ground megalithic complex - towns and settlements ruins of Neogene period, surviving catastrophes and deluges"), and in many other of my works (Human civilisation is millions of years old. It is proved by research on the edge of geology and folklore, "About changing history, difficulties in discovering remains of pre deluge technogenic civilisations and global spreading of town ruins of Neogene civilisations, lived in harmony with nature", "Stone basins, tombs and wells in Turkey, Israel and Bulgaria - petrified structures, dug in soft Miocene sediments, Cenozoic mountain-folded belts and Neogene under/above ground megalithic complex",
"Humanitarian mission I Neogene - heroes, who were saving deluge hostages hidden in underground (continuation of the article "Automobile roads of Neogene time in Turkey" and others) and I will not stop here to mention presented proofs in them. I determined age of rock and underground structures in these works as middle-late Miocene. This stretch of Neogene period, according to modern stratigraphic schemes, began 15.9 million years ago and finished 5.3 million years ago. To say precisely in which part of middle or late Miocene underground rock towns were built is very difficult. Probably, parts of them were constructed in Pliocene (5.3-2.6 million years ago).
Almost all underground and rock towns have traces of destructive earthquakes, fires and floods ravaging the Earth. It means that they lived through catastrophe, possibly, even few or them. Flood waves and fires wiped out inside of them all material proofs of nations builders past glory, followed water and atmospheric erosion finished off destruction of "silent" towns.
How did rock and underground towns look?
1. "Elvish towns"
My studies of different rock and underground towns and structures showed that the number of earliest of them included situated on mountain tops ruins of "cut" in rocks megalithic walls, rooms, halls, stairs, tunnels, wells (Pismis-Kale, Akpara-Kale and Great Yazlikaya in Turkey, Perperikon in Bulgaria, Mangup-Kale and Tele-Kermen in Crimea), which I called "elvish towns", because of their similarities with shown in fantasy films structures ("Lord of the rings", "Hobbit", "The Chronicles of Narnia" and others).
Taking into account that modern relief of Mediterranean mountain areas inherited late Miocene and Pliocene relief (this is well seen on Neogene peneplain), we can imagine how those dwellings looked like. They were well equipped buildings (rooms, halls, towers), cut in upper parts of unreachable rock plateaus, continued through tunnels deep under the ground and mounted by walls and buildings made of stone megalithic blocks different size and shape (Great Yazilikaya, Pismis-Kale, Akpara-Kale, Perperikon, Mangup-Kale),
also, possibly metal and wood.
Numerous round holes (and here), drilled in the base of rock structures and connected to them megalithic blocks indicate the use of metal or wood columns and structures while building "elvish towns". However, as I already wrote, metal and wooden things did not remain. Only round holes were left in stone, reminding today about them. Glancing at rock towns in thoughts from above, one can really see some similarity with town-fortresses from fantasy movies.
Why were "elvish towns" built on the tops of impregnable rock plateaus?
Why did Neogene people (may be not people, who knows?) build dwellings on the tops of impregnable plateaus?
Possibly because, at that distant time, all kinds of (straight walking, flying, crawling) intelligent snakes, dragons, many armed rakshasas, yakshas, chimeras and other creatures, many of them were very dangerous, lived on Earth except for people. May be, there was a beautiful, breathtaking view from the top of these town fortresses on plateaus tops (it is intrinsic attribute of all "elvish towns" visited by me), this view inspired their inhabitants. And if those towns were really built by Elves or nations which I refer to to Elves (Tuatha de Dannan, gandharvas, apsaras, valkyries and others), all of them are characterised as talented creative personalities, artists, musicians, poets. Apart from this, we should not forget, according to Indian and, possibly Scandinavian and Irish epics, they had flying apparatuses, which inhabitants of "Elvish towns" could use for flying from one town to another. In this case, straight rectangular or round platforms for flying apparatuses landing and taking off should had been left on the top of rocky plateaus. By the way, Ramayana narrates that flying apparatus of rakshasa's leader Ravana, usually stood or floated above the town-fortress Lanka's top, which some researchers compare with Sigiriya in Sri Lanka, resembling Mediterranean rock towns.
2. Domed halls and room enfilades with bas-reliefs
Domed halls with arches, columns and bas-reliefs in Cavusin, enfilades of spacious, well made rooms and halls in Tatlarin, many domed "churches" with bas-reliefs in Ayazini in Turkey, also some underground "churches" of Crimean rock towns, made in the best of antique style, belonged to the most ancient rock towns. Underground towns of Cappadocia in Turkey, underground galleries, bell like halls and rooms of Maresha and bell shaped caves of Beit Guvrin and Luzit in Israel, also, very much smoothed by erosion rock-underground complex of Atlit, Horvat Carta and Migdal-Malchi in Israel should be put to the same category.
3. More primitive underground dwellings and auxiliary rooms
There are some doubts about attributing commonly found in Turkey, Israel, Bulgaria and Crimea, roughly "cut" in rocks, rectangular, small rooms and halls with niches, shelves, holes and, what is usually called horse feeders, to the most ancient rock complex.
They differ from earlier described structures by more primitive build, that is why sometimes it seems that those rock structures were built in different time. However, analogical underground rooms and halls are widely spread in Cappadocia underground towns, they carry traces of fires (ash) and secondary changes (crusts of hydrothermal materials) on the walls, they are also greatly destroyed. That is why, to say, they were built later, is, possibly, premature. Probably, more beautiful and intricately furnished underground dwellings were built by other nations, they were inhabited by elite, or they served for cult purposes. More primitive rock and underground structures were purposed for common folk.
Why were rock and underground towns and structures built in big numbers in Neogene?
What was the purpose for building rock and underground towns and structures around the world in Neogene? I answered this question in details in article "Humanitarian mission I Neogene - heroes, who were saving deluge hostages hidden in underground (continuation of the article "Automobile roads of Neogene time in Turkey"). Earth population of that time saved themselves inside them from terrible catastrophe, accompanied by earthquakes, fires, floods and long period of darkness and cold, when there were no sun or moon above. Possibly, part of those towns (for example "Elvish") was built before or after catastrophe. We cannot now say about this exactly, their age will always be determined with 10 million years discrepancy. May be a bit less. How much more water under the bridge? How many new civilisations could appear and perish?
Younger rock tombs and dwellings
Alongside with Neogene underground and rock towns and structures, there are younger tombs, cut in rocks. Such tombs are plentiful in Turkey (Lycian tombs in Dalyan, Fethiye and Myra, Phrygian tombs in Great Yazilikaya, Aslantas and Amorium and other places in Turkey). They are seen everywhere in Israel, Bulgaria, Crimea and other countries. Part of the tombs has perfect shape and finishing according to antique architecture (with columns, arches, folded gates). Others appear to be quite roughly cut rooms.
I told about them in detail in article "Megalithic structures of Bolivia, Israel, Turkey and Russia - fragments of underwater-under/above ground megalithic complex, spread in the whole world", where I suggested, that they were built by unknown civilisation, lived between 40 and 25 thousand years ago. It's deeds are usually ascribed to Lycians, Etruscans, Phrygians, Jews and other nations (depending on geographical location of the tombs).
One cannot exclude probability, that part of rock structures, adapted to storage and temporary dwellings (especially, at mountain's foot and lower parts of bluffs) also was erected considerably later than rock and underground towns - simultaneously with tombs or after them. None of those structures kept material remains, which would have enabled to determine their age. That is why, speculations on that subject will be endless. I can see just one opportunity to estimate rock underground complex's age approximately - to use various geological criteria, which I mentioned above, to the maximum. Also, try to determine secondary minerals crusts absolute age on the walls of underground and rock structures. Possibly, they will tell the time when underground structures had already existed.
© A Koltypin, 2015
© A Semenov, 2017 (translation)
We, A. Koltypin the authors of this work, and A.Semenov, the translator of this work, give permission to use this for any purpose except prohibited by applicable law, on condition that our authorship and hyperlink to the site http://earthbeforeflood.com is given
Read my other new works on the Neogene civilization "Humanitarian mission in the Neogene – the heroes who saved victims of flood who had taken refuge underground (continuation of the article “Automobile roads (cart ruts) of the Neogene time in Central Turkey”)", "Crimean petrified wheel tracks - the Neogen roads", "Neogen (15-6 million years ago) road and track global network in Mediterranean", "Global Distribution of Ruins and Other Material Traces of a Neogene (15-6 million years ago) Civilization in the Mediterranean Region", "Middle Earth - the real country of the Neogene period"