When were the rock and underground towns built in Mediterranean region? Geologist view (reflections after the trip to Crimea). Part 1. Critics of official dating for the rock and underground towns - Earth before the Flood: Disappeared Continents and Civilizations
Rock towns of Crimea, Turkey, Israel and Bulgaria - are part of common rock complex, built by the same people
In the middle of August 2015, an opportunity was presented to me to visit five Crimean rock towns: Chufut-Kale, Tele-Kermen, Eski-Kermen, Mangup-Kale, Kachi-Kilion and four cave monasteries: Uspenskiy, Blagoveshenskiy, Kachi-Kilion (Saint Anastasia) and Inkerman (Sviati-Klimentovskiy). Studying their photographs in internet beforehand, I was ready to find that rock towns and cave monasteries of Crimea will remind of their Turkish, Bulgarian and Israeli counterparts, researched previously by me. It was a big surprise that they looked absolutely identical. Despite the fact that Turkish structures were "cut" or "carved" (official scientific terms) in tuffs and tuff like rocks, rock complexes of Israel and Bulgaria were made in limestone, chalk, sandstone, gravelites and conglomerates. Crimean rock towns were made in hard Bryozoa-crinoidal and nummulite limestones. These bedrocks differs from each other in age (they developed from 65 to 10 million years ago).
Now, I saw armoured surface on the tops of table mountains, it was represented by Palaeocene (Danish-Inkerman, developed 65-58 million years ago) or Eocene (Simferopol, developed 48-40 million years ago) limestones, so called Quests, exactly the same remains, cut in rocks rooms, walls, stairs, tunnels, wells and other rock structures, which I saw in big numbers in Phrygian plain and Cappadocia, Turkey, in central and northern Israel, rock towns and sanctuaries of Perperikon, Tatul and other places of Bulgaria. Looking at them, I didn't have a shadow of doubt, that it was the same rock complex, built by the same (as it will be shown later, by two) civilisations and having the same age in Turkey, Israel, Bulgaria, Crimea and apparently other places in Mediterranean.
Why do archaeologists and historians date different rock towns and structures differently?
In connection with this, I didn't understand why archeologists, studied this complex, date the beginning of rock towns building in Crimea (V) VI-XI AD, in Turkey III-II BC, II-I AD, VI-IV AD, in Israel II-I BC, IV-III BC, II BC - III AD, VII-XI AD, in Bulgaria V-IV BC, II BC, VIII-VI BC, in other words, in different countries and different parts of the same country differently. Their construction in Crimea was attributed to Sarmatians, Khazars, Goths, Cimmerians, Byzantines, in Turkey- Hittites, Phrygians, Lycians, Romans, Byzantines, in Israel - Canaanites, Jews, Romans, Byzantines, in Bulgaria - Pelasgians, Leleges, Carians, Thracians.
In other words, if we hold to official, academic point of view, it turns that absolutely the same rock structures were built by a dozen or more different nations, which had been appearing and disappearing in vastness of Mediterranean during five or six millennia. In this, many rock structures were also built coping classic Byzantine architecture (V AD and later), the proof of that are crossing tunnels in a form of a cross, cross like galleries
All of those nations coped Byzantine architectural style for unknown reason (even if they lived five, three, two or one thousand years before appearance of Byzantine empire). They were panically scared of something or someone, not wishing to live on open space with forests, meadows, lakes and rivers. They climbed into steep, impregnable mountain rocks, which could have been accessed by not every man with a risks to their life and mainly, they cut small chambers and tunnels on their steep slopes with unknown means, lived for years in cramped underground towns and rooms, more like to burial tombs than dwellings, without fresh water and food for a long time...One can ask: why did they do this?
And what is their purpose?
Classical history and archeology answers to this question approximately like that: all of those nations were hiding in rock underground shelters for five or six millennia from conquerors, who threatened them from everywhere.
"Orthodox population, defending from northern nomad's raids, pushed by Catholics from sea shores, went into mountain districts and built fortified settlements on plateau. Those towns came to history under common name "Crimean cave towns". The biggest fortified towns were Mangup, Eski-Kermen, Bakla..."
Real state of affairs: rock and underground towns of Mediterranean region could have been built tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands or millions of years ago
Similar point of view is very arguable and can only be unquestionably accepted by those readers, who cannot properly imagine how cave and rock towns look like. In section "My explorations", I put many photographs of underground and rock structures, I wrote about overwhelming feelings during people's visits. Very often, there comes a desire to leave them as soon as possible, fear and even panic. In some underground rooms you feel as if you are locked in stone sarcophagus or cramped stone tomb. You are afraid to make another step or careless movement, not to fall down from steep 30 or 50m rock, the third underground towns have such low and narrow ways, that they can be passed only by crouching or crawling. Imagine, how it was to get to a passageway, similar to a fox hole, 10 or 20m deep under earth surface, when someone can block it.
Scary! I have goosebumps even now, when I remember crawling into one of such holes
in underground town Tatlarin in Cappadocia (Turkey), being cramped from all sides by tunnel walls; it was dark, unknown Turkish supervisor was behind. What if he did not like Russians and blocked the entry by big stone?! (Although, it is unlikely, Turks are fine folk). Or he decided to go after me!?
Studying big number of underground and rock towns and structures situated in different parts of Mediterranean, I came to conclusion, that they had quite different purpose and were built well before time, given by archaeologists and historians. Truly, those towns and structures were really used many times later, up to modern times as shelters, stores, temporarily dwellings, being constantly reconstructed or added to. This, probably, explains such a big dispersion of their dating and shown in different articles examples of nearby finds: hand tools made of bronze, obsidian, flint of Neolithic period (late Stone Age, dated VIII-VI BC) and Palaeolithic stone tools (Stone Age, lasted from 2.5 million years ago to 12-8 thousand years ago). However, construction of the most ancient parts of rock and underground towns and structures can be separated from us by tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands or even millions of years.
Let's look now how justified this point of view is.
Critics of official dating for rock and underground towns and structures
1. Official datings are usable only for dwellings and structures, built with small blocks in rock and underground towns.
Reports and publications about rock and cave towns and structures usually say that the history of their appearance, life and death studied very little because historical science has not any written sources at its disposal about them (Crimean rock towns), or the earliest written sources about rock and underground towns and structures dated I millennia BC and belong to Ancient Greek or Roman authors (Xenophon, Strabo and others, underground towns of Cappadocia). Age of such towns and structures is determined ONLY by archeological excavations and finds.
When you start to "dig", what such finds appear to be, you come to constant references to remains of ceramics, bones, charcoal, stone, bronze and iron tools etc., found in cultural layers, ruins, rock and underground chambers. Also references to determining absolute age (with the help of radiocarbon method) of clay cement in building's ruins, walls made of small stones and stone blocks or contained in them remains of ceramics.
Archeological excavations of rock complex, according to my observations in Hattusas (Turkey), Perperikon and Deaf Stones (Глухите камъни) (Bulgaria), Atlit (Israel) and some other places, open cultural layer at the foot of rock complex, filling hollows inside it or overlaying rock structures with the thin cover. Cultural layer is represented by newest Quaternary continental sediments and covered by soils with grassy plants, shrubs, less often trees, usually dated not later than Holocene epoch of Quaternary period (10-12 thousand years ago), more often has younger age. It is deposited on washed and susceptible to strong erosion surface of rock complex, which can well be seen on rock gorges and in archeological excavations zones. Very often it is separated from rock surface by week layers of alluvial, colluvial and delluvial sediments, consisting of breccia and gravel.
So, age determination "based on archeological excavations and finds", can be used only for cultural layer and buildings, erected on rock base and made of small stones and blocks bound by clay or cement. It has no relevance to rock and underground structures, not containing any remains (if you don't attribute to them found hand tools, bones, crocks, charcoals, which could had been taken there at any time).
2. Rock and underground towns are much older than buildings and dwellings built on them with small stone blocks.
Remaining ruins, built on underground and rock towns and structures or bordering with them fortresses, churches, dwellings and other buildings and walls made of stones and small stone blocks, have much younger age than underground and rock complex. That is why it is wrong to determine age of rock and underground structures by them. Also, they were built in different time - from Hittites and Phrygian empires, or even earlier, before existence of Byzantine and Arabic conquests - dating of underground and rock complex according to them leads to a huge misinterpretation of its age. I turned your attention to that at the beginning of the article.
There are plenty of proofs for different conclusions about age of underground and rock structures from one hand fortresses, churches, dwellings and other buildings, stone walls made with small stone blocks, from another hand. I do not understand why archeologists, who studied them, did not pay attention to this.
Firstly, all structures and stone and stone block walls were built on rock complex surface, broken by rifts, cracks and significantly eroded. They often composed of erosion remains or Quaternary sediments and soils, covering cultural layer.
Secondly, stone and stone block walls (often built on a top of each other in several rows) lay on ancient rock complex walls with blurring and stratigraphic discordance (speaking in geological terms) in many places (Jerusalem, Hurvat Qarta in Israel, Perperikon in Bulgaria, Chufut-Kale in Crimea). Surface of underlying stone wall is uneven, with numerous cracks and pockets, often filled with breccia and gravel. It is characteristic not only for rock structures but also for megalithic wall ruins (Hattusas, Alaca Höyük, Great Yazilikaya in Turkey), top part of which has deep erosion traces. When geologists observe such correspondence of underlying and overlapping layers in rifts, they usually say that it took millions of years for them to form, during which lower layers were taken to the surface (appeared to be land) and were destroyed by earthquakes, water, wind etc.
Thirdly, all structures and stone and stone block walls are almost unsusceptible to erosion and very seldom over crossed by rifts and cracks. Their secondary changes are negligible, contrary to secondary changes of the walls and ceilings of underground chambers, which in most cases (if they were not built later), covered by scurf and crust (sometimes quite thick),sooth and hydrothermal minerals. More over, it is hard to see the difference between Canaan, Judaic, Hittites, Phrygian, Roman, Byzantine, Medieval and modern walls. As if all of them were built at the same time. Astonished by this fact, I photographed modern stone fences and boundaries of Alushta, with the purpose to carry out, another time (and here), comparative analysis of modern and ancient stone works and walls. My earlier observation of visually identical ancient and modern stone works and walls in Tatlarin, Hattusas (Turkey), Jerusalem (Israel) and some other places, are also going to be included.
3. Rock towns and structures - preserved fragments of ancient rock-underground towns, destroyed by earthquakes and erosion.
Many years of my research of rock towns and structures in Turkey, Israel, Bulgaria and Crimea, showed that most of them have never been "cut" or "carved" in the masses of bedrock, which is observed by researchers. Coming back from my first trip to Turkey, I wrote that rock structures of Tatlarin and Cavusin (fragments of rooms, walls, stairs etc)developed as a result of underground towns destruction during hugely forceful catastrophes and earthquakes; furthermore, they were subverted to water and atmospheric erosion for a long time. Proofs of those are presented in relevant sections of my site ("Rock town Tatlarin " and "Rock town Cavusin"). Most convincing among them is the fact that opened rooms and gallery's fragments of Tatlarin, cut in rocks, as a result of mountain side destruction, continued below in multi storeyunderground town.
Rock town Cavusin appears to be quite unusual. Rock ridges
and outliers, coming out on dividing ridge, are nothing else but eroded wall and room fragments of former underground chambers. They have numerous rectangular holes, often half sunk in cultural layer. Coming in, you get into an enfilade of underground rooms and galleries. Very likely that Cavusin, as much as Tatlarin, was completely underground town earlier. In later years I visited big number of rock towns and structures in Turkey, Israel, Bulgaria and Russia. They all had traces of destruction, connected with tectonic movements and bedrock masses erosion, where rock towns were "cut".
In some places part of rock and underground structures sank in water alongside rifts (Kekova in Turkey, Rosh Hanikra in Israel). Deep, rectangular or square stone basins were left instead of rooms and galleries in some places (Atlit, Hurvat-Qarta, Migdal- Malcha in Israel) or it was walls and rooms remains, barely rising
above bedrock (Adulam, Hurvat-Burgin in Israel). In third places former underground structures composed very "eaten" by erosion outliers of different size and shape, where stone remains of staircases, tunnels, rooms and entrances could be seen (Avdalas Calesi, Great Yazilikaya, Doganli Fortress in Turkey, Mangup-Kale in Crimea). Huge, irregular holes were gaping through walls and ceilings of such rooms, with a good view of surroundings. Every time when I visited such structures, I compared them with hollow sand castles, built on sea shore. If tide waves were rolling over them, they would have created something similar.
Characteristic feature of many rock and underground towns is a big number of crossing cracks and rifts, big lumps - columns, rooms, staircases, severed from rock towns on the mountain tops. Those lumps were rolling down the slope and stopped in the middle, at mountain feet, at some distance from them (now they
are in farmer's fields). Some of such blocks are in overturned positions, deeply sank in soft Quaternary sediments or develop huge placers of stone lumps (Pismis Kale, Akpara Kale and Aslantas in Turkey, Tepe-Kermen in Crimea).
Fragments of cut in stone staircases, without beginning or end, "hang in thin air" look very strange (Great Yazilikaya, Pismis Kale in Turkey, Perperikon in Bulgaria, Eski-Kermen in Crimea).
All of these clearly states that most of "carved" in rock structures are remains of of some ancient rock, underground-rock or underground towns. Although, to be fair, we have to note that some part of small underground chambers (tombs) was cut on the slopes and at mountain foot after the main part of rock towns was destroyed.
4. Rock towns - top parts of huge, man made rock-underground complexes, widespread in the world. Underground towns of Crimea
Many rock towns (Cappadocia, Tatlarin in Turkey, Adulam and Hurvat Burgin in Israel and others) indeed appeared to be man made rock-underground complexes. They are tops of the icebergs, with the main part hidden deep underground.
When archeologists date rock towns, for example, VIII AD or I millennia BC, they automatically carry on (sometimes not suspecting of that) such dating to significantly bigger part of those towns. Given dating of underground towns in Cappadocia or Israel (III-I millennia BC) somehow can be logically fathomed, dating of Crimean towns VI-XI AD, to speak mildly, is surprising.
The fact that underground towns in Crimea exist is very possible. There is information, only found in scientific magazines, internet and unchecked reports coming to me from different sources (it is often connected with ex military), that entrances to catacombs can be found in different parts of Crimea (Sevastopol, Bahchisaray district, Kerch peninsula, Old Crimea and others). It is also backed by witness's stories. All of them talk about four or five catacomb levels, and that their lower levels have not been researched, also, that one can get to continental part of Russia, Ukraine and Caucasus through catacombs. Catacombs are supposedly under Chufut-Kale.
Such stories do not look impossible if you can take into account that catacombs are attributed to some parts of ancient towns, similar to developed in Turkey, Israel, Syria, Ukraine and in Russia from Dnepropetrovsk to Azov sea cost. The first are well known, I knew of the second recently, when I looked for information about Dnepr Rapids. Apparently, German Ahnenerbe looked for Yggdrasil Ash, which gives immortality, in one of the underground town galleries, situated north of Azov sea during the World War II!
Underground catacomb-towns are widespread all around the world. There are o lot of them in South and North Americas, they are in Egypt, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, China, Southern and Central Russia and many other countries. More often, information about such structures is thoroughly hidden, their entrances are covered by grills, as in, for example, Peru, concreted or backfilled, as in, for instance, Southern Russia or situated within military bases (Nevada, USA).
Of course, not all of the underground catacomb-towns are followed by rock structures. Some of them are on plains, under the cover of soft Quaternary sediments and soils (Egypt, Southern and Central Russia). But if they are in mountainous areas, one can find rock towns and structures almost always.
This allows to attribute rock and underground towns and structures to common, ancient underground-above ground megalithic complex, I wrote about its widespread development on Earth in my article "Underwater-under/above ground megalithic complex - ruins of towns and settlements of Neogene period, survived catastrophes and deluges".
We, A. Koltypin the authors of this work, and A.Semenov, the translator of this work, give permission to use this for any purpose except prohibited by applicable law, on condition that our authorship and hyperlink to the site http://earthbeforeflood.com is given