Hindustan movement to the north and its collision with the Eurasian margin - Creation of Tibet and the Himalayas
Separated during the middle Cretaceous (110 million years ago) from Antarctica, the Hindustan plate (at a rate of 9-10 cm per year) moved rapidly to the north and in the early Eocene (55 million years ago), came into contact with the margin of Eurasia. The collisional interaction between them was very long. It increased significantly in the late Eocene (about 40 million years ago), and then in the early Miocene (18-20 million years ago).
Compression between the two continental blocks continued through the Neogene period and continues to this day. As a result of crushing, subduction and thrusting at the plate junction, about 40 million years ago the Tibet plateau and mountain ranges of the Hindu Kush, Pamir and Himalaya were formed. At first they were of low elevation, covered with tropical forests.
Tibet rose 0.5-1km about 18-20 million years ago. From the middle Miocene thru the Pliocene epochs of the Neogene period (18-3.4 million years ago), there existed a vast, elevated land about 1 km high, which was filled with many lakes, meandering rivers and tropical-subtropical forests.
In the Miocene epoch (20-10 million years ago) the Himalaya Mountains were still of a low altitude. Around the middle Miocene (14-15 million years ago) the eastern part of the Tethys Ocean closed.
In the early Pliocene epoch (5 million years ago), the Himalayas were covered in tropical rain forests and forest-steppe. Erosion cut deeply into the river that flowed from Tibet. The modern appearance of the Tibet plateau and Hindu Kush, Pamir and Himalaya mountain ranges did not occur until in the second half the Pliocene epoch of the Neogene and Quaternary period (3.4 - 0 million years ago).
Movement of Africa and Arabia northward to come into contact with Europe and Central Asia. The formation of the Alps and the Caucasus
Separated from Antarctica at the end of the Late Jurassic period (before 150 million years ago), Africa and Arabia also moved, although at a slower rate, to the north and at the beginning of the Neogene period (24-18 million years ago), they encountered the southern edges of Europe and Central Asia. As a result of the collision, the Alps, Caucasus, Zagros and other mountain ranges were formed. By the end of the Pliocene epoch (3.2 million years ago) the entire Alpine-Himalayan mountain-folded belt, stretching from Gibraltar to Indonesia was created.
The formation of the Atlantic Ocean
Throughout the Paleogene, the Atlantic continued to expand, even though its formation had begun in the early Cretaceous period (135-140 million years ago). South America moved away from Africa, and North America moved away from northern Europe. However, there was probably still present a land bridge to the north which linked North America and Asia.
Separation of Antarctica from Australia and South America
In the early-middle Eocene (55-45 or 40 million years ago) Australia was separated from Antarctica. In contrast to the movements of the Indian subcontinent and Africa, Australia has been slowly rotating counterclockwise and as a result has remained to this day in the southern hemisphere.
At the turn of the Eocene and Oligocene (about 34 million years ago) South America separated completely from Antarctica and became a separate continent. Some researchers have suggested it may have occurred more recently (24 million years ago).
In the Paleocene and, in all likelihood, Eocene epochs (66-34 million years ago), Antarctica was, as in the north with Hyperborea, free of ice and covered with deciduous and subtropical vegetation.
Two physiographic zones of Earth in the Paleocene and Eocene (66-34 million years ago)
Judging by the composition of fossil flora and paleoclimatic reconstructions of the Paleocene and Eocene, the continents of Hyperborea and Antarctica were the most suitable places to live at that time. In addition to the favorable climatic conditions, there was eternal daylight, with the sun setting over the horizon only briefly before rising back up into view. The rapid rotation of the Earth (faster than today) apparently had only a small effect on Hyperborea and Antarctica as it was only a manifestation of the higher of the Coriolis force. Thus, there could have been many animals and sentient beings there of present modern size.
Read my works "The Position of Earth's Axis, the Earth's Rotation and the Length of Day in the Paleogene" and "The Promised land - the reminiscences of remote past" (L Fitzpatrick title "Promised Land - Memories of the Distant Past. Where were the Islands of Immortals?")
The rest of the land surface was found at tropical, equatorial latitudes (most of Africa, South America, North America, Eurasia, and possibly Australia) and had a rapid change of day and night. At the equator, the day lasted not more than 4.4 – 5.0 hours. The rapid rotation of the planet on these continents caused significantly less gravity than there is now and this allowed for animals and intelligent beings of gigantic proportions to feel at ease. In my opinion, it is in these continents where the intelligent serpent people lived.
The beginning/Continuation "Sacred Geography - the Geography of the "Golden Age"
© АV Koltypin, 2009
© LA Fitzpatrick, 2013 (translation)
We, A. Koltypin the author of this work, and L.Fitzpatrick the translator of this work, give permission to use this for any purpose except prohibited by applicable law, on condition that our authorship and hyperlink to the site http://earthbeforeflood.com is given
Read my works "Atlantis, Hyperborea, Lemuria, Mu - really existing continents, long ago known to geologists. Once again to the need for reform of education in natural science", "Hyperborea – Where was it and what did it look like?", "Where were the Islands of Immortals?" and other works, announced in "Hyperborea - Northern Native Land of Mankind", and also a series of my works "History of the Earth and Mankind from the Beginning of the Palaeocene till Crist"
Read P.Olexenko's work "Atlantis – a sunken continent, archipelago or fiction of Plato? The arguments for and against Atlantis and attempts of its localization" and "Myth about Lemuria" by N Roerich