In the present Arctic area (Hyperborea) - call it the seventh continent - probably there existed small isolated shallow marine basins near Europe and North America.
In all likelihood, this seventh continent was the mysterious continent that Herodotus wrote of (about 425 BC) in his "History" and called “Hyperborea”.
Let’s make a comparison between the 1554 Hyperborea map of G.Merkator and the topographic relief of the floor of the Arctic Ocean?
The map of Hyperborea made by the famous cartographer Gerhard Mercator, dated 1554, shows this continent centrally located in the polar part of the Arctic Ocean. If we compare this map with the bottom topography of the present day Arctic Ocean, then Hyperborea would have been located in the deepest central part of the Arctic Ocean (77-78 ° north с.ш .) - the so-called Arctic basin, which is now occupied by several basins and underwater ridges: the Canadian basin (maximum depth of 3900 m), the Makarova (average depth of 3450 m), the Amundsen (maximum depth 4500 m), the Nansen (average depth of 3450 m) and the underwater ridges of Alpha -Mendeleva (minimum depth of 1234 m), University (minimum depth of 954 m) and Gakkel (minimum depth of 400 m) (see map on page). The total area covered by Hyperborea based upon G.Merkator’s map is approximately 1150 km x 2250 km.
Deep-sea basins of the Arctic Ocean
According to the currently prevailing views, oceanic crust in the deep basins of the Arctic Ocean has been formed by the process of mid-oceanic spreading. Formation of the Canadian deep-water basin, according to the magnetostratigraphy, began in the Cretaceous period (130-119 million years ago) and ended in the late Cretaceous period (100-80 million years ago). Spreading in the Makarov Basin started in the late Cretaceous period (76-70 million years ago) and ended in the early Eocene epoch (56-55 million years ago). The long narrow Amundsen and Nansen Basins continued forming through most of the Eocene epoch (56-34 million years).
At the beginning of the Oligocene epoch (34 million years ago), there was a complete restructuring of the world system of spreading ridges. Stopped the formation of oceanic crust in the basins Amundsen, Nansen, and also located on the other side of Greenland, Labrador and Baffin Basin (modern Labrador and Baffin Sea), and she joined Greenland to North America.
The ridges of the Arctic Ocean
The origin and formation of the ridges of the Arctic Ocean is unique and controversial. Most researchers believe that the Lomonosov Ridge, is a fragment of the former margin of Eurasia. It took up its present position in the Early Eocene epoch (55 million years ago) as a result of spreading, which began in mid-Danian time (63 million years ago). Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge seems to have evolved as a result of volcanic activity along the transform fault or former spreading center. Gakkel Ridge shows all the signs of the mid-ocean ridge (the Rift Valley in the central part, the division of Nansen and Amundsen). Its most active development was during the Eocene epoch (56-34 million years).
Conclusion: Merkator’s Hyperborea was elsewhere than the map shows it to have been located.
ТThus, the features of the structure and history of the formation of deep basins and submarine ridges of the central part of the Arctic Ocean show this cannot be the place of ancient Hyperborea. If this continent really existed and the presence of a continental land mass north of the Arctic Circle in the Paleocene and Eocene epochs can be considered a proven fact (and here) - then either Hyperborea was located in another place, and the Mercator map is not quite accurate, or the North Pole was in another place at the time. Both of these assumptions are equally probable.
© АV Koltypin, 2009
© LA Fitzpatrick, 2013 (translation)
We, A. Koltypin the author of this work, and L.Fitzpatrick the translator of this work, give permission to use this for any purpose except prohibited by applicable law, on condition that our authorship and hyperlink to the site http://earthbeforeflood.com is given
Read my works "Svarga (Jambudvipa, Hyperborea). The world where gods lived", "V.Perri. Forgotten world. A buried landscape of Atlantis (Hyperborea) is discovered?", "The earliest maps of Earth (Piri Reis, Oronce Fine, Gerardus Mercator, Philippe Bauche and other cartographers) were charted in the Palaeogene", "When did grow forests and flow rivers in Antarctica? Once again about the age of Piri Reis, Oronce Fine and Philippe Bauche' maps", "Where were the Islands of Immortals?" and other works, announced in "Hyperborea - Northern Native Land of Mankind"
Read also my work "The Moon - a fragment of Hyperborea!?" and "Earth in the Early Paleogene and the planet Uranus - twins, brothers? To what unexpected conclusions it is possible to come on a joint of astronomy, geology and folklore" (L Fitzpatrick's title "Earth in the early Paleogene and the Planet Uranus - Twin Brothers? Unexpected Conclusions based upon the Correlation of Astronomy, Geology and Folklore")