According to Sumerian myth "the Mount of heavens" and Akkadian-Babylonian poem "When above", population of the Earth constantly increased and, eventually, the moment had come when minor "new" serpentine gods (of semiaquatic-semiterrestrial mode of life) led by Enki had rebelled against the senior "new" serpentine gods led by Tiamat. Enki killed Apsu and had chained Mummu, and he had constructed a big house on the brink of ocean in which he began to live together with the wife Damkina.
There is a similar motive in Japanese legends. Landed on the earth Susanoo "cleaned" it from monsters one of which was eight-headed and eight-tailed red-eyed dragon.
Approximately at the same time (second half or, more likely, the end of the Oligocene) daityas, danavas and their descendants from mixed marriages (and here) had populated huge spaces of the Earth, and she could not bear "any more burden of daityas and danavas trampled down it" and "had failed in entrails of Patala" (terminology of Indian legends). It was happened at the Oligocene and Miocene boundary (23 million years ago) and, according to my hypothesis voiced in the book "Battles of ancient gods" it could be connected with impingement of some heavenly body with the Earth.
More possibly and Sumerian and Japanese myths in a greater degree proves to be true that at the Oligocene and Miocene boundary there was the first (?) world war after the "Golden Age" end. One belligerent party was of sea snakemen - incomers led by Enki/Susanoo, another party - hordes of sea monsters led by Tiamat and Kingu, and probably, in the union with overland monsters. For overthrow of the senior generation of gods the young serpentine gods had united with adityas or daityas with danavas and, possibly, old snakemen come from the Mesozoic era, having passed laws of old gods of unity of person with the nature and of followings to a natural order of things, and they had put at the head of the army aditya or daitya Marduk. Tiamat and hordes of sea monsters-dragons were overthrown and the land "was bridged" again to the sky and rains, hailstones and snow began to fill.
Attention! In my later works "Legends and hypotheses about a lunar rabbit, churning of the ocean, spinning up of the firmament (vault of heaven), origin of the Moon and connection of the Moon with death and immortality - the description of catastrophes at the boundaries between the Third and Fourth and the Fourth and Fifth world epochs, acquisition of modern appearance by Earth and emergence of the modern person - Homo Sapiens " and "The most important catastrophe in the history of Earth during which mankind appeared. When it happened?" I have shown that "separation" of the earth from the sky and "rising "of the firmament (vault of heaven) by the gods took place simultaneously with the appearance of the moon at the Early and Middle Miocene boundary (16 million years ago). This culminating event completed one of the most intricate and controversial periods in the history of Earth, which began at the turn of the Oligocene and Miocene (23 million years ago) by collapse of the sky to the earth and the Flood, which marked the end of the Third world epoch and the beginning of the Fourth world epoch of the Aztecs and Nahua . Therefore, the dating, presented above, is rather accurate and substantiated.
In description of bright-red dragon of Munhush which became helper of Marduk after defeat of Kingu and Tiamat we can see shapes of old snakemen. He combined strains of snake, eagle, lion and scorpion. One more example of them - eight-headed and eight-tailed red-eyed dragon overthrown by Susanoo.
In the poem "When above" we can find mention that at the moment of catastrophe terrestrial atmosphere was two-layer (Rigveda, Old Testament, and researches of J. Dillow say the same) and "headwaters" ranged over an air cover. It is said that Marduk had repaired it: "had covered headwaters by split body of Tiamat as if by wall", but it sprung a leak. And, apparently, for the first time from the beginning of Cenozoic era streams of rains, hailstones and snow had fallen upon the Earth which were absent before.
It is very important part of the legend.
First, it is well co-ordinated with my conclusions in the book "Battles of ancient gods" that fast and irreversible destruction of an upper water cover had begun at the Oligocene and Miocene boundary (read also here).
Secondly, as I already spoke, the water stratum in atmosphere protected surface of the Earth from penetration of ultra-violet beams and, apparently, was major factor of longevity, and, may be, immortality. So the Oligocene-Miocene boundary quite could mark of changing of the Satya-Yuga to Treta-Yuga (terminology of Indian legends) when lifetime of reasonable inhabitants was reduced from 100 thousand years upto 10 thousand years.
Attention! In my later work "History repeats itself through 150 million years. About equivalence of Aztec and Maya's world epochs and Indian Yugas and existence of reasonable life in Carboniferous, Ordovician and other periods" the boundary between the Satya Yuga and Treta Yuga dates back to close to the Eocene-Oligocene catastrophe (33.9 million years ago). This implies that the destruction of water-steam cover (envelope) started earlier.
A war (and more correct, a train of wars) at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary is mentioned in Egyptian myths. Apparently, widespread story about fight of the light forces connected with sun boat of Ra, Wadjet and Horus (Gorus), with dragon Apop and hordes of crocodiles, snakes and hippopotamuses lived underground. Victory in all these fights had gained by Horus which, most likely, was the leader of daityas or danavas. It is difficult to say, Horus and Marduk were the same person, or there were two independent leaders lived at the same time, but at reference of Horus to daityas or danavas it is represented rather probable that Marduk was daitya or danava too. And it is quite possible that Marduk, Ra and Horus were of black skin.
The union of Ra and Horus with Hathor, Tefnut, Sehmet, Maat, Astarta (which I call apsaras) in struggle against "snakes and other evil spirits" described in Egyptian myths and uncompromising struggle of other goddesses-apsaras (Bastet, Mafdet, Mehit, Menhet, Ment and Astarta) and gods (Onuris) with snakes (dragons) allow to assume that in the end of Oligocene epoch former inhabitants of Hyperborea (Svarga, Jambudvipa) gandharvas and apsaras (they are also alate Annunaks) had located in separate areas of globe (Egypt, Mesopotamia). They struggled with snakemen (it is not always clear from legends which of them) and were important strategic partners of daityas and danavases. Sumerian myths allow to assume that the majority of them were of black skin.
Possibly, between daityas, danavas, gandharvas, apsaras and "the new" snakemens of semiaquatic-semiterrestrial life (Enki, Osiris, Isida, Nommo and their followers), there was existed not too strong union which at any moment could break up and outgrow in quarrel. It is confirmed in Sumerian myth about abduction by Inanna of destiny tables from Enki and direction of seven sea monsters in a pursuit of her by great god Enki.
Humanoid and reptile gods, apparently, lived in different terrains (in the different countries?). The territorial device of Ancient Egypt proves it. The Lower Egypt long time was under control of snakemen with obviously expressed sea orientation, and the Upper Egypt was ancestral land of àpsaras. Ra and Horus, apparently, alternately owned all Egypt or its upper part, however, it is difficult to perceive on the basis of the Egyptian myths which terrain was controlled by them during this or that time.
Sumerian and Akkadian-Babylonian myths tell approximately about the same, according to which "black-headed" (danavas - kalakeyas?) lived in Uruk, Nippur, Kishe and other cities mentioned in the epos, and sea people lived in the city of Eridu under control of Enki.
© A. Koltypin, 2010
© P. Oleksenko, 2011 (translation)
We, A. Koltypin the author of this work, and P.Oleksenko the translator of this work, give permission to use this for any purpose except prohibited by applicable law, on condition that our authorship and hyperlink to the site http://earthbeforeflood.com is given
Read my works "Military alliance of Adityas with dragon-people and multiarm beings", "Industry, wars and ecology of antediluvian Earth. Part 2. Ideology, military alliances and wars (destruction of links between people and Nature)", "Outcome of white gods. From Hyperborea to Easter Island. Part 2. The Oligocene-Pleistocene. Revival of mankind and moving of the white gods on all world", "Emancipated female society: a view from time immemorial (remote ages). About a leading role of women in the development of human civilization and the existence of states and nations, leaded by women. Part 4. Goddesses-fighters of ancient Egypt and Sumer"
Read also my works "Legends and hypotheses about a lunar rabbit, churning of the ocean, spinning up of the firmament (vault of heaven), origin of the Moon and connection of the Moon with death and immortality - the description of catastrophes at the boundaries between the Third and Fourth and the Fourth and Fifth world epochs, acquisition of modern appearance by Earth and emergence of the modern person - Homo Sapiens" и "The most important catastrophe in the history of Earth during which mankind appeared. When it happened?"