Elves in Ancient Ireland. Secret of the Tribe of the Goddess Danu (the Danu people) - Earth before the Flood: Disappeared Continents and Civilizations

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Elves in Ancient Ireland. Secret of the Tribe of the Goddess Danu (the Danu people)

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Gods and goddesses of the People of Danu (Tuatha de Danann) - Dagda, Nuadu, Manannan, Ogma, Aengus, Lugh, Dian Cecht, Goibniu, Morrigan, Macha, Badb, Brigid and others. Seizure of  Ireland by Tuatha de Danann. The Danu people - the divine race of immortals and magicians, by their beauty exceeding mortal

The family of the goddess Danu


"Pleasant and defiant in admiration Society, marvelously beautiful in image, possessing the remarkable weapon and refined clothes, skillful in music, singing and the game, presented with the most lucid mind and bright temperament among all who ever arrived to Ireland. The tribe of Goddess Danu -  it was above all bravery and inspired the real horror, for surpassed all nations of the world by the skill in arts and crafts".  The saga "Battle at Mag Tuired"

Tribe or tribes of the Goddess Danu - in Celtic (Irish) mythology is a "progenetic human divine race” of inhabitants of Ireland, which was settling down as a family round the goddess Danu, the wife of the Sun god Belenus. Data about this tribe is remained in the numerous Irish legends stated in extensive compilation of the XII century. "Book of captures of Ireland" and in sagas of the same time: "Battle at Mag Tuired", "Old times of places", "Courtship to Etayn" and many others. Dana was considered as a mother - the progenitress of gods among which are most known Dagda, Nuada, Manannan, Ogma, Engus, Lugh, Dian Kekht, Goibniu, three goddesses-warriors - Morrigan, Maha, Badb, Brigita, etc. Some of these gods ( Lugh, Ogma, Nuada) were all-Celtic.

There is an opinion that Irish Danu and Ana - two independent goddesses. Ana was Mother of the Tribe of the goddess Danu (Tuatha de Danann), and Danu – it is a later name. A cult Danu and Ana connect first of all with two hills in Muenster, in the county of Kerry which in the ancient time were called and are known still as "Ana's Breasts". The Danish Hills in Leicestershire are also called in her honor.

In Welsh tradition to the goddess Danu there corresponds the goddess Don, and the tribe of the goddess  Danu - the descendants of Don known mainly from "Mabinogion's four branches", issued at the end of the XI century and absorbed many subjects and separate elements of ancient mythology. Some Welsh and Irish gods correspond each other. So, Welsh Lleu is similar to the Irish and Gallic Meadow, the Irish divine smith Goibniu - with Welsh Gofannon, the Irish Manannan with Welsh Manavidan.
The spouse of the goddess Don was Beli, it is visible connected with Gallic solar god Belenus from whom conducted the family tree the largest Welsh historical dynasties. In Welsh genealogy Danu - Don turns into Anna; it is characteristic and for Breton tradition where Anna rules over the people of the dead - An
aon.

The Tribe of the Goddess  Danu (Tuatha de Danann) conquer Ireland

In "The book of captures of Ireland" the Tribe of the Goddess Danu were considered as a penultimate group of conquerors of Ireland; for the first time appeared on the mountain Konmaykn Reyn in Konnemar's district.
In myths of the Irish Celts the North was considered as a source of great force. A goddess tribe Danu - Tuatha de Danann ("Tuatha" means "North") came from the northern islands, full of druidic wisdom and magic knowledge. Here what is told about it in one of three options "Battles at Mag Tuired":

"On northern islands of the earth there were tribes of the goddess Dana and  there they comprehended knowledge, magic, knowledge of druids, charms and other secrets, while didn't surpass skillful people from all over the world.
In four cities they comprehended knowledge, secret knowledge, devil craft -  Faliase and Goriase, Muriase and Findiase.
From Falias they brought Lia Fal that was then in Tara. He screamed under each king who could rule Ireland.
From Gorias they brought a spear which Lug owned. Nothing could resist it or before the one in which hand it was.
From Findias they brought Nuada sword. It was necessary to take out it from a fighting sheath as anybody couldn't evade from it, and it was  truly irresistible.

From Murias they brought Dagd's copper. Never happened so that people  leave it hungry …

… it was possible for tribes of the goddess Danu to make peace with fomorians, and Balor, the grandson of Netab, gave His daughter  Etne to Kean, to son of Dian Kekht. She gave birth to a  wonderful child, and there was it Lugh.
The Tribes of the Goddess Dana came on a set of the ships that force to take away Ireland from Fir Bolg. They burned the ships at Cork Belgatan which now is named as  Konnemara Land, that not in their will was to recede to them. Ashes and a smoke descending from the ships, shrouded  near lands and the sky. Since then people consider that the Tribes of the  Goddess Danu came from smoky clouds".
In other, apparently, earlier version of "Battle at Mag Tuired" it is said that the Tribe of the goddess  Danu - Tuatha de Danann reached Ireland on dark clouds directly by air, fell by the mountain to Konmaykn Reyn and for three days covered with darkness a sun face.
Tuatha de Danann's great number was put ashore Ireland, without having met any resistance. And in order to keep their presence in secret, Morrigan, Badb and Maha decided to resort to the help of magic knowledge which they seized in Findias, Gorias, Murias and Falias. They disseminated "rains and dense impenetrable "druidic" fogs" through all lands of Ireland, so the people Fir Bolg directly from air came fire and blood during three days and three nights, and people have to hide in deep shelters. However Fir Bolg had their own druids and eventually, it was possible to stop this trouble, having read special paternosters. Charms dissipated, and air again became pure and transparent.

In 105 days there was a battle of the Tribe of the goddess Danu and the people Fir Bolg, proceeding four days and known as the first fight at Mag Tuired. "In the first fight at Mag Tuired they battled with Fir Bolg and conquered hundred thousand soldiers together with king Eokhayd, Erk's son …. Many people the tribes of the Goddess Danu lost in this battle". The hero of the people Fir Bolg, Sreng which has battled with the king of gods Nuada, struck by him and chopped off a hand to the king together with a half of shield.

Crippled Nuada couldn't rule more Ireland, therefore contention began.  After much debate it was decided to give the royalty to Bres - to Elata's son, the lord of fomorians.

Very curiously stated in  the "Battle at Mag Tuired" the legend about Bres's birth. Once Erie, the woman from a goddess Tribe Danu (Tuatha de Danann), left to the sea and saw the silver ship on which deck there was a soldier with golden hair and in an attire embroidered by gold patterns; it was Elata. He incorporated with Erie and told  her that She will give birth to the son, whose name should be Eokhayd Bres (Eokhayd Wonderful).
"Then they lied down together. When Erie saw that the soldier rises, She began to cry.
- Why are you crying? - He asked.
- Two reasons for my grief, - the woman answered.
- Parting with you after our meeting. The Young men of Goddess’ Tribes Dana wanted to be with me, but I rejected them, and now you seized me, and only You are my wish".
In this legend Erie acts as the woman capable on deep feelings. The similar characteristic of representatives of these nation, connecting them with human beings, is available  in other Irish myths, for example, in the myth about the chopped-off hand of Nuada.

The episode given above says that Tuatha de Danann entered marriages with fomorians, and did it not only on coercion, but also by their own will. Many other men and women of the Tribe of the goddess Dana also were connected with fomorians through dynastic marriages, for example, Lugh was the grandson of Balor - the master of fomorians.

From the father Bres inherited demonic lines, and "his reign was sad". Bards and filids stopped, festivals stopped. Three governors of fomors - Indekh, Elat and Balor (according to other version, Tetra) laid Ireland under tribute. "Great Warriors were forced to draw duty: Ogma dragged firewood, and Dagda erected fortresses. It is He constructed Bres's fortress".
The patience of the Tribe of the goddess Danu - Tuatha de Danann came to an end and they demanded from Bres to leave a throne. He, having persuaded them to wait for seven years, went for the help to the country of fomorianss (possibly, to Britain or Scotland).
The country of fomors through his eyes appears as "the boundless plain with a set of their patrimonial communities". The greatest heroes of fomors - Balor and Indekh collected the troops. "The continuous chain of their ships lasted from islands of strangers to the Ireland. Ireland until then didn't know such kind of force, than an army of fomors".
After Bres’s leaving  Nuadu became the king again; Dian Kekht made to him a hand of silver which later his son Miah covered with skin. But here Lugh came to the Goddess tribes of Dana  and offered his help in fight against fomorians. Nuadu gave him his throne as to more skillful in all crafts.
Lugh conferred the whole year with brothers Dagda and Ogma, and then with brothers Nuadu, Goibniu and Dian Kekht.
They invited to themselves magicians and druids with sorcerers to learn, on what each of them is capable. Those told that will bring down on fomorians all great mountains of Ireland, will take away from them the great rivers, will fill fiery heavy rain from heavens, will recover stones, the turf and trees and will set them to fight, they will damn and discredit them that through the secret power to deprive  them of firmness in battle.
Morrigan "told that she will go and will break Indekh de Domnan's son (by means of magic and sorcery), having dried up blood in his heart and having taken away valor kidneys, and she gave two handfuls of that blood to troops. When Indekh appeared in battle later, he was already doomed".
Shortly after fomorianss attacked Ireland from the East to return a throne to Bres, cruel fight was played. It is known in the history
as the Second fight at Mag Tuired and  takes the central place in the saga "Battle at Mag Tuired".
"In the day of great battle fomorians from camp acted and rose mighty indestructible hordes … Truly to fight that day with fomorians was similar    to hit the head by a wall, or to keep a hand in a snake nest or to give your face for a flame. Here saw fomorians that the soldiers of the Tribe of the goddess Dana, struck to death, fight next morning again. And it is Dian Kekht immersed them in a wonderful source of Slane. Then fomorians covered  it with stones. And Tuathas started to perish. The Warrior Ogma won the king Indekh, but also himself was struck in a duel. Nuadu with the Silver hand and Maha the daughter of Ernmas fell by hand of Balor".
The duel between Lugh and Balor became turning point in fight, whose unique eye possessed magical ability to take away force on whom it will address. His eyelid was so heavy that it was rised with the help of stick passed through it by four soldiers. But Lug managed to strike this eye with the wonderful spear or a stone from sling,(according to different versions).
Morrigan before an army of the Tribe of the goddess Danu rose then and sang a song "Kings move to fight...". Then encouraged warriors of Tuatha de Danann started to fight with a new power and destroyed demons and put them to run to the sea. Not many fomorians managed to escape. Among them " there was filid Loh Letglas, green half - from the earth to the top". Soldiers of the Tribe of the goddess Danu (Tuatha de Danann) saved the life to Bres - betrayer for the knowledge he told them how to keep ways and terms of cultivation of the earth. "Let plow on Tuesday, fields sow on Tuesday, on Tuesday let reap. Bres was so rescued.” Thereby the people of a tribe of the goddess Dana, owning military art and druidic wisdom, became expert also in agriculture, that is gained one more ability which made them closer to the human beings.

Tribe of the Goddess Danu - divine race of the immortals and magicians


The mythology which has reached us and literature of Ancient Ireland kept distinct images of a tribe of the goddess Dana and their Great Mother Danu. Therefore if to reject the traces of the Christian influence which have left traces on many manuscripts, it is possible to imagine Tuatha de Danann's deities such with what they were during those far times when they were met by people.
So, in one of versions "Battle at Mag Tuired" the goddess Danu’s tribe (Tuatha de Danann) was represented as
"society pleasant and defiant admiration, wonderful by image, possessing the remarkable weapon and refined clothes, skillful in music, singing and the game, presented with the most lucid mind and bright temperament among all who ever  arrived to Ireland. The tribe was strong in bravery and inspired horrible horror, for surpassed all people of the world by the skill in arts and crafts".

For Celts the concept of "god" or "goddess" were distinct from our representations. They respected and admired them not because gods were sacred but because they could create the things inaccessible to people.

Men and women of a tribe of the goddess Dana weren't considered as the immortal. They lived under the same laws of the physical world, as Celts, also were born and died. At the same time of Tuatha de Damann, there were other beings allocated with force and magic abilities, and were at level somewhere in between mythical superpeople and deities.
They were forever young, fine and had swift-footed, as a wind, horses with a broad chest and the eyes, flaring a flame. Gods of Celts could die only unnatural death: to be killed in battle, be poisoned, killed. So, on one of versions "Battle at Mag Tuired"
"Truly cruel and terrible was this fight between fomorians and warriors of Ireland … Many noble husbands were struck to death in that time. There was there a great fight and great burial … Streams of blood were flowing by the white bodies of the brave soldiers who have been chopped up by hands of firm heroes that escaped from a mortal misfortune … In fight finger-tips of fighters that slid in blood under feet almost met and, falling, hit foreheads each other. Truly, difficult,  bloody and wild was this fight, and the river Unius washed at that time many corpses".
Men and women of a tribe of the goddess Danu didn't die of an old age that testifies to very big duration of their life - for example, god Danda and goddess Banba lived more than 3000 years.
Unlike the predecessors (except fomors and Fir Bolg) and successors, Sons of Mile, men and women of a tribe of the goddess Danu had secret magic knowledge and owned sorcery secrets. They were the greatest magicians training the first druids.
One of the most important features of women of the Tribe of the goddess Danu - Tuatha de Danann was their wonderful magic ability to change a form, appearance and the size. They could turn into animal, ugly old women, beautiful, seductive girls or elements of the nature.
Danu, mother of all gods, accepted shapes of a horse, and also various goddesses under names of Aine, Brigita, etc. Shape of a horse took some other goddesses, for example, Morrigan, Maha and Kayllig. Morrigan also was in images of an eel, a she-wolf, a cow, a raven and mortal women. In shape of a raven or an Egyptian vulture appeared as Nemayn, Maha and Badb.
Dekhtira, mother of Kukhulin, quite often became a swan, as well as Aine, Kaer, Derbforgall and Finola. Badb, Ange, Bann Nalma, Bo Fund, Buana, Ding, the Bark, Muann, Estiu, Uayrebuyda could turn into deer, cows, cranes, storks, other birds and fishes, Kaoranakh - in a snake, and Kayllig and Gab Org - in a winter storm. Liban was the lake maiden, and Logiya -  was the river maiden.
Unlike women, men seldom changed their images. Among those who possessed this gift, there was Kukhulin turning into
a dog, a wolf, a bird and an eel. Lugh associated with a raven, Midir - with a crane, Engus - with a swan, etc.
Manannan owned an invisible raincoat by means of which could remain one minute invisible, in another - to accept shape of the person, and in the third - to turn into the boat. Levkety turned into a thunder, Mac Kekht - a plow and the earth, Macque Kuil - water, Mac Gren - fire.
Their magic ability to cure patients was one more major feature of men and women of a tribe of the goddess Dana and to recover the died. The following fragments, for example, testify to it from "Battle at Mag Tuired":
"During that time, Nuadu suffered from a mutilation, and Dian Kekht put to him a hand from silver that moved, as if alive. Dian Kekht son- Miakh didn’t like this idea, and he went to the chopped-off hand, and said:
- A joint to a joint, and a muscle to a muscle!
So he cured Nuadu in three times three days and three nights. Till the outcome of three days he held a hand at a side and the hand was covered with skin. The second three days he held it at a breast, and at last put to it a white core of the stems charred on fire.
Unkind seemed such treatment to Dian Keht, and he brought down a sword on the head of his son and cut skin to meat. Skillful Miah cured this wound. Here in the second blow of a sword Dian Kekht split the meat to the bone, but this wound Miah  cured again. In the third time brought Dian Kekht his sword and split a skull to the brain, but also Miah  cured his  wound. In the fourth time the brain was struck by Dian Kekht, speaking, that after such blow any healer won't help it. Truly its happened.
Then Dian Kekht buried Miah…
… And here is how a rage was installed in the covered with wounds soldiers, that they became even more bravely for the next day. Over the source which name is Slane was told magical formulas by Dian Kekht, his sons, Oktriuyl, Miah and the daughter Airmed. The fighters struck to death were plunged into a source, and left out from it healed. They were restored to life thanks to the power of healing formulas, that four healers  sang around the source.”
Here "gods" of a tribe of the goddess Danu act as great magicians. But at the same time, they weren't all-powerful and not always could rescue the tribespeople from death. And all this make them even closer to human beings.

Scientific monks whom in the Middle Ages writing-down legends of Ancient Ireland, experienced difficulty in how to consider characters of a tribe of the goddess Danu - as people, demons or fallen gods. In the story about Tuan Mac Kayril from "The book of the Brown cow", written down approximately in 1100, it is said that nobody knows, from where came from to Ireland the Tuatha de Danann, but only one thing is true, " it is similar, they came from heavens, their mind and perfection of their knowledge" testifies about it.

Men and women of a tribe of the goddess Danu were not only the greatest magicians, but also scientific people, in perfection comprehended laws of the nature and able it to operate. Tuatha de Danann had all-round knowledge of curative and power properties of plants and used them for treatment of the various diseases, mortal wounds and at commission of spells.

They also were very skillful handicraftsmen and musicians, soldiers and poets, and their weapon was considered as the best and modern. Women had almost same civil rights, as men, and actively participated in all man's affairs, even in war. Quite often they spoke as envoys at negotiations between the conflicting parties, and also sat at councils at conclusion of peace. A magnificent example of the female-warrior - queen Medb in sagas "Kukhulin's fight with Ferdinand" and "Kidnapping of a bull from Kualnge". All this, however, didn't exclude some inequality. While for the soldier to get the concubine was a commonplace, the betrayal of the wife to the husband was cruelly punished, up to burning on a fire or exiles from a tribe (the saga "Adventures of Art, the son of Kon"). However it is already difficult to establish, was it so actually or "it was added in stories" about the tribe of the Goddess Danu in the gloomy Middle Ages.
The goddess Danu’s Tribe - Tuatha de Danann had a very widespread custom to bring up children on the party or in a look of "guarantee of friendship", or for a payment - in the pedagogical purposes, for character training.
Boys remained on education to seventeen, the girls - till fourteen years. Duties of reception parents were understood very widely. Close communication between dairy or stepbrothers was established on all life - sometimes stronger and deep, than consanguinity.

Tuatha de Danann by their beauty surpassed the mortal


The characteristic of a tribe of the goddess Danu would be incomplete without the description of appearance of its representatives. However, there not too much of information is provided in the Irish sagas and Welsh legends in this respect; generally it concerns the late period of life of a tribe of the goddess Danu (Tuatha de Danann) in sidas where they left after defeat from People of Mile. Nevertheless, we can imagine Tuatha de Danann as the high, ideally combined, forever young and fine young men and girls with very light skin, delicate features, blue, gray or green eyes and long golden hair which the faultless beauty could make mortal people crazy.
So, for example, the goddess Ayna (Aina) in the Irish sagas is represented is dazzling the beautiful - with pale skin, a fragile thin figure with refined perfect proportions and long golden hair.
Queen Medb in the saga "Kidnapping of a bull from Kualnge" (XII century) is described as "the woman high, fine, dolichofacial, pale, with golden locks of hair".
And here Bekuma with White Skin in the saga "Adventures of  Art, the son of Kon" (the hand-written text of the XV century) is represented:
"The maiden was such a beauty …
soft yellow hair and gray eyes on her face, teeth of charming color, thin red lips, black eyebrows, straight light arms, a snow-white body, small round knees, harmonous refined feet, - all of an excellent look, an image, completion and perfection. The dress of this girl, who is Eogan Inbira's daughter was wonderful”.
Isn't less fine  Etna (Etayn) in "Education in houses of Two Bowls":
"If that you hear, about the beautiful golden-hair girl is sweet to you, learn truly nowadays that this book stores. I from the tribes of the Goddess Danu, - answered Etna (Etayn).
Golden smooth hair are loved,
the ruddy beautiful face is loved,
Her camp, soft and harmonous is loved,
sweet lips are loved.
The noble body is loved,
the
charm of Her personality is loved,
lips fine, modest are loved,
harmonous hips" are loved".

One of Etain's most detailed descriptions is given in the saga "House destruction Da Derga":
"Two plaits of color of gold lay on her head and in everyone was on four locks with beads on the ends …
Snow … soft is more white and her hands were smooth, and cheeks of the woman reddened more brightly than a foxglove. The back of a bug of her eyebrow, were more black, white as if a pearl stream, there was her smooth teeth, blue as if hand bells, were her eyes. Her lip were more red. Equal, gentle, white shoulders of that woman were high. Long there were her hands and snow-white fingers. There were its sides, as wave foam, long, harmonous, gentle and soft, as if wool … Small and snow-white there were her direct shins … The woman's face was shone with shine of the bright moon … And womanly her voice, stately and firm her royal gait was soft. Truly she was the most wishes, loveliest and finest than other women, what ever you look for all over the world".
Engus appears in the Irish sagas as is delightful the beautiful young man with distinguished features, dark green eyes and perfectly combined well-muscled body of the athlete. It has long curly hair and a light-golden beard with slightly reddish shade; gold and silver-white locks shone as if in hair strips of pure gold and silver were twisted. His skin was soft and light, with easy suntan.
I will provide the description of charioteer Kukhulin in the saga "Courtship to Emer" (IX century):
"Before him I see the charioteer, harmonous, with freckles on a face, his head is all in wavy bright gold and scarlet hair that the bronze grid constrains and  not allowing to them to fall on a face".
Women of a tribe of the goddess Danu carried long cloaks - raincoats or attires of free breed in length on an ankle. The clothes of men consisted of a tunic in length to a knee and a shawl or a cloak - raincoats which were fastened at shoulders by brooches. Cloaks hardly covered shoulders and were made of dense felt or a rough fabric of various brilliant flowers. On women, as a rule, there were no headdresses, and men wore hats or covers from soft felt. During fight they removed them, collected the thick long hair in a thick bunch in front and painted them in bright red color by means of the soap made of animal fat and ashes of a beech. Their faces were painted by the same paint in the form of the various drawings, giving them  more similarity to wild wood creations, than to people.
Attires of men and women of the Tribe of the goddess Danu - Tuatha de Danann were trimmed by gold and silver embroideries, jewels, brocade and silk were familiar to them. Here that what Fer Diad, Kukhulin's sworn brother, for example, speaks, to queen Medb in the saga "Kidnapping of a bull from Kualnge":
"You, the Empress of kruakhansky hills
The voice and will is loud is strong!
So bear brocade, bear silks,
Silver and gold, and pearls …
"
And here - the description of clothes of Kukhulin in the saga "Courtship to Emer":
"The wonderful, marvelously worked scarlet shirt with five folds. A gold buckle on his white breast at a collar … On it a light raincoat with a cape, adorned with a sparkling gold thread".
I will provide some more descriptions of clothes from the Irish sagas:
"On Her [Medb] there was an one-color green raincoat with a fringe weaved by a thread from red gold, a red satiny shirt on her white skin, sandals from white bronze were on Her";
"The red wavy raincoat with a silver fringe was on that woman [Etayn] and a wonderful dress, and in a raincoat a gold hairpin. The white shirt with a long hood was on Her, smooth and strong, patterns of red gold. On a breast and shoulders from each party fastened a shirt gold and silver buckles to strange faces of animals. The sun shined the woman, and everyone could see shine of gold on green silk";
"Two husbands, Ol and Otin, fluffy-haired, dressed in raincoats blue, with silver hairpins on a breast came nearer to me. On a neck of everyone there was a hoop of the purest white silver".
"They were dressed [two sons of Aylil and Medb] in two green raincoats, with hairpins from white silver on a breast. There were on them two shirts of fine golden silk. Two swords with brilliant handles hung at a belt of young men. Two sparkling boards they bore, the animals adorned with faces from white silver";
"… in green stains there was a raincoat on Her [the witch Feydelm] the shoulders, fastened on a breast a hairpin with heavy navershiy. Through all clothes her body, as if the snow which has dropped out in one night"
was shone.
Aine also carried translucent purely - the white cloak fastened at the left at a shoulder; her hands and the right shoulder were bared, and a waist was fasten with the thin silver chain collecting a matter in free folds over her hips.

The beginning/Continuation "The Goddess’ tribe Danu - elves of "The magic country" (only Russian text now)


©  A Koltypin, 2009
©  A Fennel, 2013 (translation)


We, A. Koltypin the author of this work, and A.Fennel the translator of this work, give permission to use this for any purpose except prohibited by applicable law, on condition that our authorship and hyperlink to the site http://earthbeforeflood.com is given.

I urgently recommend to read
my not translated into English works on parentage to the Tribe of the goddess Danu - Tuatha de Danann of Ganharvas, Apsaras, Valkyrias, and ,

my works "Elves in mythology and history. The great civilization of elves", "Where were the Islands of Immortals?", "Avalon - a lost land or a place in the Other world", "The Land of Promise - reminiscence on the far past", "Aditi, Diti and Danu - matriarchal hypostases of the Divine Trinity", "Emancipated female society: a view from time immemorial (remote ages).  About the leading role of women in development of human civilization and the existence of states and nations, leaded by women", and also my work "Hyperborea (Svarga, Jambudvipa) - the northern native land of mankind"

 
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