Continuous rising for last 15 or 13 million years of Mediterranean region mountain's systems (Pyrenees, Apennines, Alps, Carpathians, Rhodopes, Caucasus, Balkans, Crimea, Pontic mountains, Zagros etc.) defined possibility for exists of Neogene megalithic, rock and underground towns and structures, roads, ruts, terraces, pits, wells and other ruins. However, they could have been destroyed by erosion and covered by late Miocene-Pliocene and Quaternary continental elluvial, delluvial, prolluvial, alluvial, lake-marshes, aeolian and other sediments, tuffs and lavas for the last 15, 13, 10 or 5 million years. And this (erosion) or another (continental amassing of sediments) geological process could have covered Neogene civilisation traces of existence for such long time. However, it did not happen. Why?
Why were ruins of Neogene megalithic, rock and underground towns, structures, roads etc. not destroyed by erosion and covered by soft continental sediments?
Speed of erosion
To answer this question, we need to know speed of mountain's destruction.
To answer this question, we need to know speed of mountain's destruction.
I searched for time data for erosion and weathering for a long time in geological literature but, with the little exception, did not find necessary information. The only thing, mentioned constantly: speed of erosion depends on many factors and, most of all, firmness of the bedrocks, climate, character and amplitude of tectonic movements.
Those few works, which gave quantifiable characteristic of erosion, informed that the speed of mountain's rising is 0.6-1mm per year on average (look also here).
When I applied this speed to calculation of time destruction of rock-underground town Cavusin (Cappadocia, Turkey), allowing that it is equal to erosion speed, it appeared that Cappadocia's modern relief could have formed for 0.5-1 million years. During this time, former underground town would have appeared on the top of mountain range and separated from neighbouring mountain ranges by valleys with height difference up to 400-500m. Despite on the fact, that the given data pushed construction time of rock-underground town Cavusin into Pleistocene epoch of Quaternary period and its age was getting older 200-400 times in comparison with official dating, I instantly did not trust these data.
Firstly, because according to E. E. Milanovskiy (Modern tectonics of Caucasus, 1968, Geology of Russia and Near Abroad, 1996) and other geologists, contemporary river network of Mediterranean region existed in Pliocene (5.3-2.6 million years ago), and according to V. A. Zharkov, geologist for mining-geological company Mireko, from Syvtyvkar, who mapped glacial deposits in the North of Russia, Paleo Pechora flew almost in the same place and in the same river bed in late Miocene (11-5.3 million years ago).
Secondly, it is because, according to my research of middle-late Miocene peneplain in different parts of Mediterranean region, modern relief inherits middle-late Miocene relief with mountains, slopes, valleys, volcanoes, micro volcanoes and even roads.
Comparing conclusions of famous geologists, - researchers of Alpine belt and my own observations in expeditions, we can conclude that mountains and valleys of Cappadocia could not have developed for 0.5-1 million years. They are at least 5 million years old, most likely, they existed 10 or even 15 million years ago. Consequently, either raising and destruction of Mediterranean mountainous systems took place with considerably lesser speed than it is quoted in rare publications or mountain raising speed was not continuous: ground lifting up did not happen during long period or change of direction for tectonic movements took place in separate time intervals. As a result, speed of erosion was much less than mountain raising speed.
So, at present time there are no reliable data for destruction (erosion) and weathering of rock, underground and megalithic complexes. It can only be judged approximately according to indirect signs, such as age and relief of ancient peneplain, existence of pre and between mountain deflections, ancient hollows, river's network, age of alluvial, delluvial, prolluvial and, first of all, alluvial and lake-swamp sediments, also, according to some other signs.
Combining those attributes together, we can determine that modern mountain ranges and river valleys of Mediterranean region formed during middle and late Miocene, Pliocene of Neogene period and Quaternary period, or during last 15-13, possibly 11-10 million years. Namely this mountain age has to be taken when calculating speed of their destruction. Consequently, the average erosion speed must be not 0.6-1mm per year but 0.04-0.1mm per year (4-10cm per millennium), or 10-15 times lesser figure.
Destruction caused by weathering and erosion
As it has just been shown, geological history of Mediterranean segment of Alpine-Himalayan mountain-fold belt confirms possibility of up to modern day preservation of megalithic Neogene, rock and underground towns and structures, roads, ruts, terraces, pits, wells etc. They, first of all, had to remain on mountain's peaks and on the top parts of the slopes, rocky hills and outliers on plains and along river or lake's shores.
However, it is hard to imagine what physical, chemical, biological weathering, water, wind, and probably glacier erosion could have done with them for the last 10-15 million years. Their speeds are also unknown. One can only suggest that late Miocene erosion and weathering seriously damaged manmade rock, underground and megalithic complexes.
It happened, possibly, in many places. Ruins of megalithic rock towns and fortresses, covered by thick crust of weathering are witnessing to that. Their top parts are eaten by erosion, filled with numerous alluvial "pockets", piles of megalithic and rock complex's fragments (blocks), often found close to surface, rolled down the slope and laying sealed in Quaternary sediments, remains of columns, sculptures in valleys, rooms cut in rock, lost their original shape, hardly recognisable stone sculptures and bas-reliefs of people, animals, birds, fishes etc. (look at section "My explorations")
Accumulation and washing out of soft continental sediments and soils
However, some rock and underground complexes, roads, stone ruts, terraces, pits, wells etc. have been preserved in good condition, as if they were made only few thousand years ago.
The reason is "laying on the surface". It is enough to visit mountains once or watch film about them, to see that low and sometimes middle part of the mountain slopes, wide space between mountain ranges and single mountains and rocky outliers, surface of the flat mountains and plateau (Chufut-Kale, Mangup-Kale and others in Crimea, Great Yazilikaya, Akpara-Kale and others in Turkey, Perperikon, Deaf Stones and others in Bulgaria, Tiermes, La Esperilla in Spain etc) covered by soft elluvial-delluvial-prolluvial sediments and soils. These sediments are usually dated as Quaternary period and, judging according to archeological excavations, their biggest part is attributed to Holocene (12-0 thousand years ago). Such soft continental sediments covers, in all probability, existed earlier (Pleistocene, Pliocene, late Miocene).
As we showed in my grant report "Palaeography, climate and Eurasian states in Pleistocene" in 2016, global catastrophe took place 11700 years ago with Earth axel shifting roughly up to 15 degrees and developing gigantic tsunami. Calculations, made on computer by V. V. Shevchenko from VC RAN (Calculating Centre of Russian Academy of Science) allowed to comprise a map for spreading such wave, determine its height in different places from few hundred metres to 1-3km. It should had washed thin cover of existing earlier (before Holocene) soft continental sediments and exposed hidden by them ruins of rock, underground, megalithic towns and structures, stone roads, ruts, terraces, pits, wells etc. That is what's likely happened.
Similar global catastrophe, with Earth axel shifting and developing, possibly, even more powerful tsunami wave (Messina event), took place on the border of Miocene and Pliocene, Neogene period (5.3 million years ago). It also should had washed out soft sediments, which covered megalithic, rock and underground complexes.
So, in many places of Mediterranean region of Alpine-Himalayan mountain-fold belt, ruins of Neogene megalithic, rock and underground towns and structures, roads, ruts, terraces, pits, wells etc. could have been preserved in good condition (to look as if they are only few thousand years old) for many millions of years, taken to the surface during Miocene-Pleistocene catastrophe (5.3 million years ago), being exposed to water, wind and other destructive forces influence for some time, after that, covered again by soft Quaternary sediments and soils and, finally, again taken to the surface during global catastrophe on the border of Pleistocene and Holocene (11700 years ago). Both global catastrophes, together with continuous Alpine-Himalayan mountain-fold belt rising for the last 15 or 13 million years, determined such wide ruins development of Neogene megalithic, rock and underground towns and structures, roads, ruts, pits, terraces, wells etc in Mediterranean region and other places of Alpine-Himalayan belt, often they have been preserved well.
We, A. Koltypin the authors of this work, and A.Semenov, the translator of this work, give permission to use this for any purpose except prohibited by applicable law, on condition that our authorship and hyperlink to the site http://earthbeforeflood.com is given