Translated by LA Fitzpatrick, the USA
The uniformly warm and humid climate of the Paleogene
From the early Paleocene to the middle Eocene epoch (66-44 million years ago), and even to the end of the Eocene epoch of the Paleogene period (34 million years ago), the planet had no ice ages, and the highest temperatures typical for tropical latitudes were also found at the polar regions. According to paleobotanical research in the Arctic (and Antarctica) palms, mango trees, avocado, laurels and other evergreens all grew back then and the average annual temperature in the polar regions (both northern and southern), using the most conservative estimates, ranged from 10-15°C to 15-20°C and the temperature of the Arctic Ocean was not less than 15-18°C. The results of drilling underwater at Lomonosov Ridge by the Arctic Ocean drilling expedition (Arctic Coring Expedition) in 2004-2006 indicates the average annual temperature in the Arctic region was much higher, about 25°C, and the water temperature ranged from 18-25°C.
According to D. Gardner (Gardner, 1879), A. Engler (Engler, 1879), A. Krishtofovich (1955), L. Budantseva (1983), M. Akhmet'ev (2004) and other researchers of the Paleocene (66-58 million years ago), the entire area was within the Arctic warm temperate and subtropical climate and the southern boundary of this zone was found at the southern tip of Greenland, northern Scandinavia, the Arctic coast of Russia, Chukotka, and the Arctic coast of Alaska and Canada.
Within the moderately warm and subtropical climates of the Arctic, the bulk of the coal basins of Paleocene age of the Northern Hemisphere are found in West Greenland, Spitsbergen, in the lower Lena River in northern Siberia, Chukotka, Kamchatka, and in Arctic Alaska and Canada. All of this suggests a warm humid climate of the time and abundant growth of vegetation, even in the polar regions. By the nature of fossil crop residues, flora in the Arctic was subtropical with gingko trees, palms and cycads. Almost everywhere there grew large plants which many researchers have linked to the polar light regime (in the case of evergreen vegetation, it’s probably better linked to a long-lasting afternoon or near horizon light).
About the same climate and vegetation were found on the southern extremity of South America, Australia, New Zealand and the Antarctic coast.
At lower latitudes on all continents a humid tropical climate was found. In the Paleocene and Eocene the mean annual temperature in Europe was 27°C. The entire body of world oceans was warm throughout the water column. The temperature at the bottom of the ocean was at least 10°C.
The climate of the entire Earth (including the high latitudes of the Southern and Northern hemispheres) was characterized by extremely low temperature variation with latitude and small variations of its seasonal and daily values.
At the crossover of the Paleocene to the Eocene epoch, approximately 58 million years ago, the climate was even warmer. According to some researchers, this was the warmest period on Earth over the past 500 million years.
The average annual temperature in the Early Eocene increased by 3-5°C. This caused an even greater expansion of the tropical and subtropical zones and the distribution of subtropical and tropical vegetation in the far north and south.
Most parts of the Earth at that time had a nearly uniform warm and humid climate. Along the shores grew mangrove forests. Tropical forests were extended at least to the latitude of England and Newfoundland. Drilling at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean suggests that even the area of the modern North Pole maintained an average temperature of about +25°C where palm, avocado and other heat-loving plants grew. The water temperature in the Arctic was 22-25°C.
The characteristic features of the early-middle Eocene climate was an extremely small seasonal difference and daily temperature and a slight change with latitude. The main vegetation of the time, growing even in the polar latitudes, were palms, cycads, tree ferns, mangroves and ginger combined with laurel, magnolia and Araliaceae. In the Arctic and Antarctic regions lived turtles and crocodiles whose optimal temperature habitat is 20-25°C.
The middle Eocene epoch (49-40 million years) showed a more clearly expressed separation of climate zones, associated with a gradual increase in temperature from the pole to the equator, and by this time there had been some reduction in the size of the humid tropical climate zone. In the area of warm temperate and subtropical climate of the northern hemisphere, the southern boundary of which was found in central Siberia and the Kamchatka Isthmus, oak, beech and chestnut forests grew. The climate became slightly hotter with drier summers and cooler winters as the precipitation pattern. Approximately the same situation was observed in the southern hemisphere, in Tierra del Fuego and the Antarctic coast.
Despite this, the average annual temperature remained high (10-15°C in the north and from 5-10°C in Antarctica).
The general trend of climate change was towards cooler poles and a warmer equatorial region, increasing the difference seasonal and diurnal temperatures with winter temperatures falling somewhat in the middle and high latitudes in the Late Eocene epoch (40-34 million years ago). However, at this time the whole earth was still very warm as even in the Arctic grapes grew.
Planetary Paleogene Greenhouse
The warm, humid climate during the Paleocene and Eocene epochs (66-44, probably 34 million years ago) across the planet has given rise to many researchers concluding that during this interval of Earth's history the greenhouse conditions caused high levels of water vapor, carbon dioxide and possibly other greenhouse gas emissions in the air *. The content of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, according to O. Ivashchenko, was then about five times higher than at present.
According to Eppie Sluidzhsa and his colleagues from the University of Utrecht (the Netherlands), the Earth's atmosphere consisted then of two membranes - an air layer similar to today, and a water layer consisting of frozen water vapor in the lower stratosphere (10-50 km) , which is currently preserved. The tiny ice crystals caught and held onto the solar radiation that Earth reflected back into the atmosphere, and thus contributed to the greenhouse effect.
An expert in the field of atmospheric physics, Dr. J. Dillow, in the book "Water from the Top" shows the mathematical evaluation of how much water vapor (not ice crystals) could consistently be above the atmosphere. He showed that it was equivalent to almost a 12 meter layer of liquid water and causes additional pressure on the atmosphere near a pressure = 1.18 atm.
Similar in structure to the Earth's atmosphere in ancient times, are descriptions in the Indian Vedas, in which the sky is divided into two tiers: the upper sphere with water reserves called "Svah" and inside of it the air space "Bhuvah", below which is the Earth "Bhuh."
The same structure of the atmosphere is suggested for the antediluvian world by many modern theologians based on their analysis of the book of "Genesis", the first book of the Old Testament. According to them, the shell over the air ("firmament") is a water-steam jacket ("waters which were above the firmament") which is differentiated from the waters below the firmament (taken to be the global seas). It created a huge planetary greenhouse, which encompassed the entire earth:
"... For the Lord God did not cause it to rain upon the earth, and there was no man to till the ground, but a mist from the earth came up and watered the whole face of the earth."
An Atmospheric Water and Steam Shell also protects Earth from strong cosmic radiation.
The two-layer model of the atmosphere is a good explanation of why the mention of a rainbow in the Bible refers only to the time after the flood. As you know, the rainbow is observed only when the sun shines on the curtain of rain, on the opposite side of the sky relative to the observer, and explains the refraction, reflection and diffraction of sunlight in drops of rain. Before the flood, the diffraction of sunlight was apparently much stronger and could not produce a clear direction of the rays. In addition, there could be no rain because of the nearly uniform temperature over the entire earth.
Read my works on the destruction of the water-steam shell and how this created a new heaven, earth and man: "Legends and hypotheses about a lunar rabbit, churning of the ocean, spinning up of the firmament (vault of heaven), origin of the Moon and connection of the Moon with death and immortality - the description of catastrophes at the boundaries between the Third and Fourth and the Fourth and Fifth world epochs, acquisition of modern appearance by Earth and emergence of the modern person - Homo Sapiens", "Description of the catastrophe which had led to change of the old and new worlds and appearance of the modern mankind (humans), in legends of different people: the loss of water-steam cover (envelop), the flood and glaciation", "History repeats itself in 150 million years. About equivalence of Aztec and Maya's world epochs and Indian Yugas and about existence of reasonable life in the Carboniferous, Ordovician and other periods", And my series: "History of the Earth and Mankind from the Beginning of the Palaeocene till Crist"
The water and steam jacket created a high atmospheric pressure. This is confirmed not only by the calculations, but the finds of amber with bubbles, the pressure inside of which is much higher than the atmospheric pressure. According to the hypothesis of Eugeniy Belshesov, pressure and density of the atmosphere at the end of the Mesozoic era (and probably in the early Cenozoic) were approximately 6.5 times higher than it is now.
Paleogene - the "Golden Age" of Humanity
ВIn the book "Battles of Ancient Gods" I compared the Paleocene and Eocene epochs of the Paleogene period with descriptions in legends of the "Golden Age." The concept of the "Golden Age", apparently, was first used by the ancient Greek poet Hesiod (probably VIII century BC) in his poem "Works and Days". Hesiod described the happy land and its inhabitants, who lived in the time of Kronos (Saturn), which he described as the inhabitants of the "Golden Age":
"Once the people lived as gods, with a calm and clear soul,
Not knowing grief, not having to work. And the sad old age
Did not dare to approach them. In life they held feasts ...
Great harvest and abundance
Themselves gave the rich of bread land. "
After the appearance of the poem "Works and Days" the "Golden Age" has become synonymous with the "Place of Eternal Happiness and Youth", the "Land of Eternal Youth,", "Islands Immortal", and many other signs of the promised land. (Here and here). These two concepts are merged into one, and often came to be seen as one.
So what are the distinctive features characteristic of the "Golden Age"?
First of all, during the "Golden Age" lush grass, flowers, berries, grains, vegetables and fruits grew throughout the year, which gave several harvests each year providing a full bounty for the inhabitants of the time. According to some legends, the residents of the "Golden Age" never ate meat, and among the animals there were no predators - they were all herbivores.
In the "Golden Age" in the world (or rather, to judge from the stories, in the northern part) there was no day and night, and in the blue sky the sun always shined (see below). Everywhere there was a warm and humid climate with no droughts, frosts or heat waves. A characteristic feature of the "golden age" was a constant envelope of thick fog over the land. Subterranean springs and thermal sources of water provided abundant flowing streams and rivers. In this Holy Land there were no wars, and all the people lived in peace and harmony.
See also my work, "The Promised Land - the reminiscences of remote past" (L.Fitzpatrick's title "The Promised Land - the memories of the distant past. Where were the Islands of Immortals?")
In the chapter "Land of Immortals, Magicians and Sorcerers: Earth during the "Golden Age?" from my book "Battles of Ancient Gods", I showed that in the northern sky the sun did not directly shine upon the earth. This was due to scattering of the sunlight from the atmospheric ice crystals of the water-steam-shell. There was also a vertical or near-vertical rotational axis of the Earth at this time and a large flattening of Earth’s surface near the North Pole due to the rapid rotation of the Earth. This later led to the emergence of the cult of “the gods” who lived there (Adityas / Svarozhichi) in constant light (see Article I Garshin "Yahweh and Zeus - gods from the Arctic"), which later on, after the destruction of the water-vapor envelope, became worship of “the gods of sunlight” or just “sun gods”.
A cursory review of the Earth's climate in different geological epochs shows that the "golden age" could not have been in the Quaternary (2-0 million years ago), the Neogene (24 and 23.2 million years ago) periods, and even in the Oligocene epoch of the Paleogene (34-24 or 23 million years ago). In fact, over the last 24-23 million years (according to various estimates, from 44 to 14 million years old), conditions which is described in the legends of the "golden age" can exist only in a local area, located near the equator or the tropics.
In the Quaternary period, which lasted 1.8-1.6 million years on Earth there is a seasonal climate with clearly defined seasons and cold winters in the high and middle latitudes. A characteristic feature of the Quaternary period is also the alternation of glacial and interglacial periods. In the interglacial periods the temperature on Earth was up to date, and only a few (2-4°C) higher. At the onset of the era of glaciers on the planet there was global cooling causing the average temperature to drop by 4-8°C (according to other sources, the 10-15°C) and the frost-free period is found only in the tropics (and even there sometimes it snowed).
But because of the many legends of the Promised Land, which are associated with the "golden age", it is placed in the north - at the present location of the Arctic Ocean covered by permafrost, surrounded by the territories of Russia, Northern Europe, Greenland and Canada. In glacial periods this whole area was firmly shackled by ice and there were severe frosts. In interglacial periods there was also extreme cold and winter temperatures often dropping to - 50°C and lower. Hence, the "golden age" could not account for the existence of intelligent humanity - at least that is the way traditional science understands it.
Much the same can be said of the Pliocene epoch of the Neogene period, which lasted from 5.3 to 1.8 or 1.6 million years ago. At this time, the earth also alternated between cold and relatively warm periods, and about 2.6 million years ago formed a solid ice cover in the Arctic.
According to the drilling of ocean sediments and the study of coastal sediments, the first ice cover in the Arctic Ocean appeared in the Miocene epoch of the Neogene period (16-10 million years ago). Glaciation of Antarctica began even earlier - in the late Oligocene and Miocene (24-23 million years ago), and for the remaining time to the present this continent was covered with ice and glaciers which thru that time significantly changed.
Read my work, "When did forests grow and rivers flow in Antarctica? Once again about the age of Piri Reis, Oronce Fine and Philippe Bauche' maps"
But that's not all. According to the research team led by Kathryn Moran from the University of Rhode Island (USA), Jan Backman from Stockholm University, and Henk Brinkhuis from the University of Utrecht (the Netherlands), ice in the Arctic and the Antarctic ice sheets first appeared in the middle Eocene period (45-42 million years ago).
Based on the foregoing it can be concluded that during the Neogene and Quaternary periods, corresponding to the last 24-23 million years, and perhaps also in the Oligocene epoch of the Paleogene period (34-24 million years ago), the planet had fluctuating climatic zones. To the north was an area with cool-season climate. In winter it often frosted, snow fell, and the surface of the ocean held down the ice. Located in the south is the continent of Antarctica, part of which has always been close to the South Pole and was covered by glaciers. The rest of Antarctica for most of the Neogene, was apparently located in the temperate zone, whereas in the north, there was a change of seasons.
Earth's climate over the last 24-23 million years, and possibly longer (34 million years ago), follows the same basic patterns of our time. However, in the Neogene (24 - 1.6 million years ago) and even more so in the late Paleogene it was warmer, and winter in the far north and far south were not as cold as it is now.
However, during the Neogene and probably late Paleogene conditions for the "golden age" can only exist in the equatorial, tropical and partially temperate latitudes. There is no reason to believe that in the extreme north and south apple trees gave fruit twice a year, mangos were growing and banyan trees and other tropical plants flourished, as described in the stories of the "golden age" and the Holy Land. Unless, of course, it could be an exception. If, for example, in any location of the northern islands volcanic and hydrothermal activity were to be found, we could then speak only of a local, but not a planetary wide occurrence that would mark the "golden age," as it is described by legendary traditions.
Hence, the "golden age", mentioned by Hesiod and described in other legends, could only have occurred during the Paleocene and Eocene epochs of the Paleogene (66 to 44-34 million years ago).
Serpent people and White Gods - the blessed inhabitants of the "Golden Age"
In the papers "Serpent People - Contemporaries of the Cretaceous-Paleogene Disaster and the Great Flood" (my title "Snake (dragon)-people - contemporaries of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene catastrophe and the Great Flood"), "Viyevichs" and "Nagas" I have written about the survivors of the Cretaceous-Paleogene disaster - the “serpent people” who, apparently, waited out the disaster in underground shelters. Serpent people (also called demon-snakes) had an awesome appearance and huge size – in almost all the legends they are described as giants. For much of the Paleogene period - for over 30 million years - they were one of the two main groups of intelligent beings who lived in the equatorial and tropical regions of the world.
In the Paleocene and Eocene epochs, animals were small (no more than 4-5 m. tall). These giants have appeared among them only in the Oligocene and early Neogene period. Furthermore, during this time the world had no real predators (but more on that in another article), and the animals that are classified as omnivores, most likely, were actually herbivorous.
What this means is that living in the Paleocene and Eocene, the serpent-people were out of danger and they felt at ease during the time period, which is 15,000 times longer than the time of Christ to the XXI century.
Despite their fearsome appearance, the demons-snakes, most likely, were vegetarians and were content with a diet of vegetables, fruits and agricultural produce. In the legends they are the hereditary farmers (and here). This gives grounds to expect that the serpent people farmed and harvested from it a "generous and bountiful" harvest which, according to this criterion, is fully consistent with the inhabitants of the "Golden Age."
ДAnother group of intelligent beings living in the "golden age" were "white gods" with a European appearance, who apparently landed on Earth at the end of the Mesozoic (66 million years ago) - "in the age of domination of giant monsters of the Mesozoic period ", when the Earth was full of living reptiles," dragons at depths, flying serpents, giant fish-birds and snakes with tubular heads ", which lay eggs. Also according to NK Roerich there were Adityas / Svarozhichi and perhaps Gandharvas, Apsaras, Vidyadhara, Charanas and Siddhas. Nicholas Roerich called them the Sons of Wisdom.
The civilization of the white gods originated and existed on the northern continent of Hyperborea (Svarga, Jambudvipa), which during the Paleocene (66 to 58-55 million years ago) era was in the areas of modern Queen Elizabeth Islands, Greenland, the Greenland-Scotland Ridge, the Norwegian, Greenland and Lofoten basins, islands of Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya, Severnaya Zemlya, Siberian Islands, and apparently, most of Northern Europe and the European part of Russia. It also encompassed much of North-East Asia and North America and its southern border ran along the then Tethys, which separated the continental margin of Asia from India.
In the Eocene epoch (58-55 to 34 million years ago), due to subsidence of the interior portion of Hyperborea, a large inland sea formed, the contours of which coincided with the modern Greenland, Norwegian and Lafontenskoy basins. In the middle Eocene, this inland sea became a freshwater lake. Elevated peripheral parts of what remained of Hyperborea are now the islands of Queen Elizabeth, Greenland, the Greenland-Scotland Ridge, Scotland, Scandinavia, New Earth, and possibly the Kara Sea, Taimyr Peninsula and the islands of Severnaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land and Spitsbergen.
Read my work "Outcome of white gods. From Hyperborea to Easter Island" and "Industry, wars and ecology of antediluvian Earth. From life in harmony with Nature to development of mining and processing industry"
The powerful race of white gods or supermen coexisted with the serpent-people and shared with them our planet during the "Golden Age" and afterwards. Because of the rapid rotation of the planet in the Paleogene and varying gravity at the poles and the equator, the white gods were restricted to habitate only the circumpolar latitudes, where the gravitational force and daylight was best suited for their needs. The snake-men who had gigantic dimensions lived in tropical and equatorial latitudes where the gravity was much smaller than it is now and where day was followed by night, every 4-4.5 hours. Both groups had reached the highest level of development: perfectly enlightened siddhas (similar traits were also possessed by wizards, werewolves and other long-lived or immortal beings). But all this decayed, as the gradual reduction of life-span of the gods and men continued due to the destruction of the water-vapor envelope (described in my other articles).
Read the next in my series of articles, "The location of Continents and Oceans in the Paleogene"
© A Koltypin, 2010
© LA Fitzpatrick, 2013 (translation)
We, A. Koltypin the author of this work, and L.Fitzpatrick the translator of this work, give permission to use this for anypurpose except prohibited by applicable law, on condition that our authorship and hyperlink to the site http://earthbeforeflood.com is given
Read my works "The earliest maps of Earth (Piri Reis, Oronce Fine, Gerardus Mercator, Philippe Bauche and other cartographers) were charted in the Palaeogene", "Where were the Islands of Immortals?", "Avalon - the lost land or a place in the Other world", "The Promised land - the reminiscences of remote past"
Read a series of my works in the section "Five world epochs and mankinds (humankinds) of the Maya, Nahua and Aztecs", "Gods and four worlds of Hopi", "Sacred geography - geography of the "Golden Age", and the works about Hyperborea (Svarga, Jambudvipa) in the section "Location of continents and oceans in the Paleogene" and "Hyperborea - the northern native land of mankind"
Read also my work "Earth in the Early Paleogene and the planet Uranus - twins, brothers? To what unexpected conclusions it is possible to come on a joint of astronomy, geology and folklore" (L.Fitzpatrick title Earth in the Early Paleogene and the Planet Uranus - Twin Brothers? - Unexpected Conclusions based upon the Correlation of Astronomy, Geology and Folklore")