Translated by P Oleksenko, Russia
Even warm and damp climate of the Paleogene
From the beginning of the Paleocene epoch (65,5 years ago) up to the end of the Eocene epoch of the Paleogene period (34 million years ago) there was not any glaciation on our planet and high temperature of air was characteristic both for tropical widths, and for subpolar areas. According to paleobotanic researches at that time palm trees, mango trees, avocado, laurels and other evergreen plants grew in Arctic regions (and in Antarctica too), and by the most conservative estimations average annual temperature in polar widths (both northern, and southern) was from +10 +15°C to +15 +20°C, and water temperature of Arctic ocean was not less than +15 + 18°C. According to results of drilling of underwater Lomonosov ridge at Arctic ocean by the Arctic Coring Expedition in 2004-2006, the average annual temperature in Arctic regions around the pole was even essentially above - nearby +25°C, and water temperature was from +18 to +25°C.
According to D. Gardner, 1879, A.Engler, 1879, A.Krishtofovich, 1955), L.Budantsev, 1983, M.Ahmetev, 2004 and other researchers, in the Paleocene (65,5-58 million years ago) all territory of Arctic regions was in a zone of moderate-warm and subtropical climate, and the southern border of this zone passed on southern extremity of Greenland, northern part of Scandinavia, the Arctic coast of Russia, Chukotka, Alaska and the Arctic coast of Canada.
The great bulk of coal basins of the Paleocene era of Northern hemisphere is concentrated within moderate-warm and subtropical climatic zones of Arctic regions: in the Western Greenland, on Spitsbergen, in lower reaches of the river of Lena in the north of Siberia, on Chukotka, Kamchatka, Alaska and in the territory of subarctic Canada. It tells all about a warm damp climate at that time and vegetation plentifully growing in subpolar areas. Practically everywhere broad-leaved plants grew and many researchers connect this with a polar light mode (in case of evergreen vegetation, probably, it is better to connect this with eternally proceeding day).
About the same climate and vegetation were on southern extremities of America, Australia, and New Zealand and on the coast of Antarctica.
In lower widths on all continents the damp tropical climate was marked. In the Paleocene-Eocene epochs the mid-annual temperature in Europe was + 27°C. The World ocean was warm in all water. The temperature on ocean floor was not less + 10°C (precently + 2°C).
At the boundary of the Paleocene-Eocene epochs, approximately 58 million years ago the climate became warmer. Such warm it remained up to 49 million years ago. According to some researchers, it was the warmest time on the Earth for last 500 million years.
The mid-annual temperature in the early Eocene has risen on 3-5°C. It had caused next expansion of tropical and subtropical zones and distribution of subtropical and tropical vegetation in the extreme north and south.
At that time there was almost homogeneous warm damp climate on most parts of Earth territory, mangrove forests grew at coasts of warm seas. Tropical forest reach at least a latitude of England and Newfoundland. Floor drilling at Arctic ocean allows to consider that Rainforests occupied even area of modern northern geographical pole where mid-annual temperature was about +25°C and palm trees, avocado and other thermophilic plants grew there. Water temperature in Arctic regions was +22 + 25° C. Turtles and crocodiles lived in the Arctic and Antarctic regions, for them optimum temperature of dwelling is +20 +25°C.
In the second half of the Eocene epoch (49-40 million years) division of climatic zones resulted of gradual increase of temperature from a pole to equator and the zone of damp tropical climate had decreased. In the zone of moderate-warm and subtropical climate of the northern hemisphere which southern border passed approximately across the Central Siberia and the Kamchatka isthmus, oak, beechen and chestnut woods began to grow. A little hotter and dry summer and more cool winter with basic precipitation had begun. Approximately the same picture was marked in southern hemisphere on Tierra del Fuego and coast of Antarctica.
Despite it, average annual temperatures continued to remain high (+10 +15°C in the north and + 5+10°C in Antarctica).
The general tendency of climate change towards displacement of moderate-warm, subtropical and tropical climatic zones from the north to the south in Northern hemisphere and from the south to the north in Southern hemisphere, increase in a difference of seasonal and daily temperatures and falling of winter temperatures in average and high widths proceeded in the Late Eocene epoch (40-34 million years ago). However, and at this time on all earth it was still very warm and even grew grapes in Arctic regions.
Global planetary greenhouse in the Paleocene epoch
In the Paleocene-Eocene eras 65,5-44, possibly, 34 million years ago the warm, damp and uniform climate was on the all territory of our planet, according to O.Ivashchenko at that time maintenance of carbonic gas in atmosphere was approximately five times above modern.
According to AppySluijs and his colleagues from University of Utrecht city (Holland), terrestrial atmosphere consisted of two covers - air, similar modern, and water, consisting of frozen water steam in the lower stratosphere (10-50 km) which has not remained now. The smallest crystals of ice caught and did not pass a part of sunlight which was reflected back to atmosphere, and thus they promoted greenhouse effect.
The expert in area of physics of atmosphere doctor Dzh. Dillow in the book "Waters from above" calculated that water steam instead of ice crystals was equivalent to about 12 meter layer of liquid water and caused additional pressure of atmosphere nearby p=1,18 atm.
The similar structure of atmosphere of Earth during ancient times is described in Indian Vedas in which the sky shares on 2 circles: the top sky with water "Svah" and air space of "Bhuvah" being under it and below there is the Earth "Bhuh".
And many modern theologians on the basis of the analysis of texts of "Life" (book of the Old Testament) suppose the same structure of antediluvian atmosphere. In their opinion, over an air cover there was a second water-steam cover. It created a huge global greenhouse in which all first world had been lodged. The water-steam cover also protected Earth from rigid space radiation.
The model of two-layer atmosphere well explains, why the mention of a rainbow in the Bible concerns only to the time after flood. As it is known, the rainbow is observed only when the Sun shines the veil of a rain located on the party of the sky opposite to it (in relation to the observer). Before flood the sunlight, apparently, had been strongly disseminated and did not form accurately directed beams. Besides, a rain could not be at all at that time.
Read my works about the destruction of a water-vapor cover (envelope) and the creation of the new sky, earth and people "Legends and hypotheses about a lunar rabbit, churning of the ocean, spinning up of the firmament (vault of heaven), origin of the Moon and connection of the Moon with death and immortality - the description of catastrophes at the boundaries between the Third and Fourth and the Fourth and Fifth world epochs, acquisition of modern appearance by Earth and emergence of the modern person - Homo Sapiens", "Description of the catastrophe which had led to change of the old and new worlds and appearance of the modern mankind (humans), in legends of different people: the loss of water-steam cover (envelop), the flood and glaciation" (and here in English), "History repeats itself in 150 million years. About equivalence of Aztec and Maya's world epochs and Indian Yugas and about existence of reasonable life in the Carboniferous, Ordovician and other periods" , and also a series of my works (in English) "History of the Earth and Mankind from the Beginning of the Palaeocene till Crist"
The water-steam cover created the raised atmospheric pressure. It is proved by not only calculations but also by finds of amber with air vials, which had pressure much more above the atmospheric. According to Evgenie Belshesov's hypothesis, pressure and density of atmosphere in the end of the Mesozoic era (may be in the beginning of the Cenozoic era too) were approximately in 6,5 times more, than now.
Paleogene - the "Golden Age" of Humanity
In the book "Battles of ancient gods" I have compared the Paleocene-Eocene eras of the Paleogene period with the "Golden Age" described in legends. The concept of the "Golden Age", apparently, had been used for the first time by Ancient Greek poet Gesiod (possibly, VIII c. BC) in the poem "Works and days". Gesiod has told about the earth and its happy inhabitants living at the time of Hronos (Saturn) whom he characterized as inhabitants of the "Golden Age":
After this poem the "Golden Age" had became a synonym of "The Land of eternal happiness and youth", "the Earth of eternal youth", "Islands of immortal" etc.
First of all, in the "Golden Age" on Earth juicy grasses, flowers, berries, cereals, vegetables and fruit grew and gave few plentiful crops in a year all year and completely provided inhabitants of that time with food. According to some legends, inhabitants of the "Golden Age" never used meat food, and were no predators among animals - all of them were vegetarian.
In the "Golden Age" (accurately, at the north) there was no change of day and night on Earth and the sun always shown in the blue sky. The warm damp climate was everywhere observed. There was no drought and frosts anywhere. There was no also a strong heat. Dense fogs constantly shrouding the earth were prominent feature of that time. Miracle (possibly, thermal) sources beated and streams and the rivers flew everywhere. There were not wars at the Promised Land, and all population lived in peace and consent.
In my books I have shown that in the northern sky, apparently, not sun but the whole firmament shone. It was connected with dispersion of a sunlight by drops of a rain or ice crystals of water-steam cover, at vertical or nearly so vertical position of a terrestrial axis and the big flattening of terrestrial surface around northern pole due to fast rotation of Earth. It became the reason of occurrence of cult of light day's gods living there (Adityas/Svarozhichi) (see I.Garshin's article "Jahweh and Zeus - gods from the Arctic") which further, after the destruction of the water-steam cover had come to a cult of gods of sunlight or simply sun gods.
Then, during last 24-23 million years (by different estimations, from 44 to 14 million years) conditions described in the legends about the "Golden Age" could exist only in any local area located around equator or tropics (the following fragment is skipped, see Russian text).
Later on Earth cold and rather warm epochs also alternated, and 2,6 million years ago global glaciation was generated in Arctic regions.
According to drilling and research of oceanic and coastal sediments, the first ice covers at the Arctic ocean have appeared in the Miocene epoch of the Neogene period (16-10 million years ago). The freezing of Antarctica had begun even earlier - at the boundary between the Oligocene epoch of the Paleogene period and the Miocene epoch of the Neogene period (24-23 million years ago) and during all remained time the part of this continent had been covered by ice though the area of glaciers sometimes essentially changed.
But there is more to come. According to researches of group of scientists under the direction of Kathryn Moran from University Rhode Island (USA) and Jan Backman from the Stockholm University, and Henk Brinkhuis from University of Utrecht city (Holland), first signs of ices in Arctic regions and glacial covers in Antarctica had appeared in the late Eocene of the Paleogene period (45-42 million years ago).
On the basis of all aforesaid it is possible to draw the conclusion that during the Neogene and the Quaternary periods (last 24-23 million years) and probably the Oligocene epoch of the Paleogene period (34-23 million years ago), there were the climatic zones similar to the modern zones on our planet (the following fragment is skipped, see Russian text).
In this case we can speak about only a local "Golden Age", but in Legends it is described as the global and planetary one. So, it means, that the "Golden Age" of Gesiod and legends could exist only in the Paleocene-Eocene eras of the Paleogene period (65,5-44, may be 34 million years ago).
Snakemen and white gods - blissful inhabitants of "Golden Age"
In the works "Snakemen - contemporaries of the Cretaceous and Paleogene catastrophe and a great flood", "Viyevichs", "Nagas" I have told about escaped in the Cretaceous and Paleogene catastrophe snakemen which, apparently, had waited it in underground refuges. Snakemen (their another name is demons-snakes) had frightening figures and the huge sizes - practically in all legends they are characterized as giants. During the most part of the Paleogene period - about 30 million years - they were one of two main groups of rational creatures which occupied equatorial and tropical zones of our planet. In the Paleogene and Eocene eras animals had the small sizes (no more than 4-5 m.). The real giants had appeared among them only in the Oligocene and the beginning of the Neogene period. Besides, there were no real predators on Earth (but about it in the other work), and animals who were classified as omnivorous, most likely, were vegetarian.
All it means that nothing threatened to snakemen living in the Paleocene-Eocene eras.
Despite the offensive appearence, demons-snakes, most likely, were vegetarians and used in the diet vegetables, fruit and agriculture products. In legends they are hereditary farmers. It gives the grounds to suppose that snakemen processed the earth and collected "plentiful" crop and completely corresponded to inhabitants of the "Golden Age".
Another group of rational creatures living in the "Golden Age", were "white gods" with the European appearance which were newcomers landed to Earth in the end of the Mesozoic era (66 million years ago) - "in the century of domination of huge monsters of the Mesozoic period". According to N.K.Roerich they were Adityas/Svarozhichi and, possibly, Gandharvas, Apsaras, Vidyadharas, Charanas, Siddhas, named by him the Sons of Wisdom.
The civilization of white gods had appeared and existed on northern continent - Hyperborea (Svarga, Jambudvipa) which in the Paleocene epoch (65,5-58, may be 55 million years ago) included territories of the modern islands of Queen Elizabeth, Greenland, the Greenland-Scottish ridge, the Norwegian, Greenland and Lofonten hollows, islands Spitsbergens, Franz Joseph Island, New Land, Northern Earth, Novosibirsk islands, and also, apparently, most parts of Northern Europe and the European part of Russia. Most likely, in the Paleocene epoch Hyperborea occupied considerable part of North-East Asia and North America (or on the contrary), and its southern border passed on existing then the Tethis ocean separating continental suburb of Asia from Hindustan.
In the Eocene epoch (58 or 55-34 million years ago) internal areas of Hyperborea, Northern Europe and North-East Asia had flexured and after this Hyperborea had separated from most parts of Europe with a sea pool and inside it the big closed sea was formed which contours coincided with modern Greenland, Norwegian and Lofontensky hollows . In the middle of the Eocene era this sea had became fresh-water lake. The raised peripheral parts of Hyperborea covered territories of islands of Queen Elizabeth, Greenland, the Greenland-Scottish ridge, Scotland, Scandinavia, New Land, apparently, Kara Sea, Taimyr Peninsula
Read my works "Outcome of white gods. From Hyperborea to Easter Island" and "Industry, wars and ecology of antediluvian Earth. Part 1. From life in harmony with Nature to development of mining and processing industry"
The powerful race of white gods or super people co-existed with snakemen and divided with them our planet at the time of the "Golden Age" and after its termination. Because of fast rotation of Earth in the Paleogene period and different gravity on poles and equator, the areas of dwelling of white gods were limited to subpolar widths where gravity was close to modern and where eternal day proceeded. Dragon-people having huge sizes lived in tropical and equatorial widths where gravity was much less, than now, and day was replaced by night in each 4-4,5 hours. Both those and others were magicians, in perfection owning forces-siddhas werewolves, long-livers or immortal… which had reached the highest level of development. But about this, as well as about reduction of longevity of gods and people due to destruction of the water-steam cover I have told already (or still I will tell) in other articles.
© A. Koltypin, 2010
© P. Oleksenko, 2011 (translation)
We, A. Koltypin the author of this work, and P.Oleksenko the translator of this work, give permission to use this for any purpose except prohibited by applicable law, on condition that our authorship and hyperlink to the site http://earthbeforeflood.com is given
Read my works "The earliest maps of Earth (Piri Reis, Oronce Fine, Gerardus Mercator, Philippe Bauche and other cartographers) were charted in the Palaeogene", "Where were the Islands of Immortals?", "Avalon - the lost land or a place in the Other world", "The Promised land - the reminiscences of remote past"
Read a series of my works in the section "Five world epochs and mankinds (humankinds) of the Maya, Nahua and Aztecs", "Gods and four worlds of Hopi", "Sacral geography - the geography of the "Golden Age", and the works about Hyperborea (Svarga, Jambudvipa) in the section "Location of continents and oceans in the Paleogene" - "Hyperborea" and "Hyperborea - the northern native land of mankind"
Read also my work "Earth in the Early Paleogene and the planet Uranus - twins, brothers? To what unexpected conclusions it is possible to come on a joint of astronomy, geology and folklore"