What do the genetic studies show?
Comparing the genes of different people in their DNA from the so-called Y-chromosome (which is passed directly from father to son unchanged from generation to generation), or of the so-called mitochondrial DNA (which is inherited only from the mother), genetic researchers have found some unique differences in the genetic code sequence of units. The smaller of these differences in representatives of two arbitrary groups of the population, show the more closely related, apparently, these groups are to themselves, the more recently they have evolved from some common "pot". But the greater the difference, the more distantly related and the more extended time that separates the life of these groups. Using the average rate of accumulation of genetic differences, you can determine when certain groups of people began to break-up and disperse. It should be noted that the mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome are the only two suitable sites for such studies because the first does not change during cell division, and in the second there is a site, which remains unchanged.
A genetic haplogroup is a label that occurs as a result of a genetic mutation of the DNA chain that can be traced for many generations in the male line. This mutation is indicated by the marker. Haplogroup has no relation to the color of eyes, hair, shape of skull, intelligence or temperament. And genetics using this tag can describe the migration routes of large groups of people at a time, from which almost no archaeological evidence even.
Azeri may feel even Tungus, that is his right, but he would still be Azerbaijani. But the children of the Azerbaijani, provided that the Azerbaijani Russian wife may have a choice to be Russian or Azeri. Grandchildren of Azerbaijani, provided that one of their parents is Russian, are unlikely to have a choice, they will not only have the Russian language and culture, but will also have Russian in the blood (75%). It is the assimilation at the cultural and genetic levels.
It is fair to say that the grandchildren can have 25% of Azerbaijan's blood in the male line, if Azeri has a son the Y-chromosome retains it’s Azerbaijani origin. And if he has a daughter, then his grandchildren will have a haplotype transfer from their Russian father.
If a Russian sailor, visiting Angola, fathers an aboriginal child-boy, he and all his descendants in the male line, will have the same haplogroup as the father. Replaced by 1000 generations, the descendants of all the parameters become the most typical of Angolans, but will still bear the European Y-chromosome. And in no other way than DNA analysis will this fact be revealed.
Mexicans are Hispanic, but that does not mean the Latin language appeared in Mexico. In Birobidzhan there is a very large percentage of the Jewish population, but this does not mean that Birobidzhan is the homeland of the Jews.
Numerous studies have shown that the genetic diversity of people is 90% due to differences arising within a population that lived on any continent, and only 10% due to the difference between any two continental populations. In other words, the average genetic differences within a population of people is expressed to a much greater than the differences between the two populations. This means that different populations differ only slightly more than those in the same population. But representatives of the same race can differ from each other by their genes. Accordingly, between races there may be more genetic similarity than that between members of the same race.
Genetic studies have shown that people who at first had to come from the same continent, and belong to the same race, in reality, are members of very different groups. These groups are the very ancient land isolated populations that have long developed independently of each other and have begun to mix again recently.
Genetic studies in India
In 2004, under the "Indian genetic diversity" program based upon the studies of DNA from 1,871 residents of the Indian subcontinent from different ethnic, religious and tribal groups, the Indian government composed the first genetic map of the Indian population. Thus, the genomes of those Hindus living in Kashmir of the upper castes were identical with the Muslims living there, and they have a lot in common with the genes of representatives of the Dravidian group. In the Dravidian group, in turn, scientists have found a genetic link to the "Indo-Europeans."
And in 2009, the most extensive study of the DNA of citizens of India was conducted by researchers from the Indian Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology - CCMB), American Harvard Medical School (Harvard Medical School), School of Public Health at the same university (Harvard School of Public Health) and the Broad Institute in Boston (Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT). Scientists analyzed about 500,000 genetic markers (SNP), which were carved out of the DNA of 132 people from 25 different groups from all 13 states of India. Represented were members of all six language groups, as well as various castes and tribal groups (more here, also about the study, is published in an article in the journal Nature)
It was quite a sensational conclusion the geneticists made that all Indians have descended from two ancient but very different groups of ancestors. Various Indians have inherited from 40 to 80% of their genes from the population, which is conventionally called the North Indian ancestors (Ancestral North Indians - ANI). They in turn were somewhat similar to the inhabitants of the Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. The second group of ancestors of the Indians was provisionally named South Indian ancestors (Ancestral South Indians - ASI) and these people were not similar to any people living outside India.
According to one of the authors of the work, David Reich, the survey found that members of the upper castes, and people who speak Indo-European languages (Hindi, etc.), got more genes from their "northern ancestors." The rest were dominated by southern roots, and the most "Southern" were natives of the Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean.
According to the lead researcher of the CCMB, Coomaraswamy Tangaradzhana (Kumarasvami Thangarajan), the populating of the Andaman Islands and the southern part of India took place 65,000 years ago. Later, 40,000 years ago, there were north Indians. At some point, the ancient north and south mixed, giving rise to the diversity of color genes of the Indian population. The mass mixing event of the ANI and ASI was followed by a long period (thousands of years) of isolation of particular groups, mainly due to the division into castes.
Thus, genetic studies have shown that the people of India have the genes of both Europeans and Asians. India was at the crossroads of genetic "flows" from Europe and Asia. In this regard, it is a surprising fact that in India, despite the large number of foreign cultures and languages, they still present their own gene pool. It has notin the past and is not now being replaced. Some experts also believe that the people of India and Pakistan are in a sense different from their neighbors, and could form a separate seventh race, the so-called "Indo-Dravidian race", which lies somewhere between the European and Asian, but closer to the European.
North Indian ancestors
Let's first take a look at the "northern Indian ancestors" (Ancestral North Indians). After all, it is to them that is connected the concept of "Aryans" and "Indo-Europeans." Today, many experts believe that the spread of Indo-European or Indo-European languages is associated with haplogroup R1a1 Y-chromosomes, which is identified with a DNA marker M17.
According to many experts from the traditional sciences, especially historians, linguists and anthropologists, the "Aryan" question comes from the banal idea of Euro-centrism and the civilizing role of Europeans in general with ancient Aryans as their representatives, in particular. It just so happened that the problem of the original "Indo" is very closely linked with politics. It is clear that the German myth cost us dearly. In the "Anatolian version" there also is a political subtext. The version of the Nostratic community (hypothetical common center of many civilizations) also has ardent supporters and ardent opponents.
Today, the largest concentration of the marker M17 (about 40%) is seen in men who live all over the Czech Republic, the Balkans, to the steppes of southern Siberia and Central Asia. In India, it is found in about 35% of the men who speak Hindi and in the community who speak Dravidian languages only about 10% of men. About 35% of men living in the eastern part of Iran, also have the marker M17. It is found in 5-10% of Middle Eastern men.
Localization of the ancestral haplogroup R1a1 is still controversial. Presumably, it originated in Eurasia. Today, there are two centers of its highest concentration - in North India and the Ukraine, as well as in the south of Russia. On the one hand, the high frequency of occurrence can be observed in any region with a large population, on the other hand its highest diversity is observed in the Balkans.
The ancestor of the R1a1 haplogroup was R1a, which took place on R1. According to modern ideas, haplogroup R Y-chromosomes of man (marked mutation in SNP marker M207) appeared about 30-35 thousand years ago, presumably in the north-west of Asia. However, most varieties of haplogroup R are found in the population of Central Asia, Siberia and the Indian sub-continent. Therefore, the ancestral haplogroup R, is likely to be found where there is the highest diversity of subclades, a place where people live close to R1 *, R2 *, R1a and R1b. This is jointly found in modern China, Afghanistan, northern India and Pakistan: Punjab - Pamir - Xinjiang.
Ancestors of haplogroup R genus P (M45) are found in small quantities in India, Pakistan, China, and Tibet. They allegedly arose about 40,000 years ago, to the north of the Hindu Kush mountain range in Afghanistan and northern regions of modern Pakistan. The descendants of this family, carriers of haplogroup R (M207), migrated to the north of the Hindu Kush in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and southern Siberia. It appears on the R R1 (marked mutation M173) and R2 (M124).
There is less reliable data on the age-R2 no. Therefore, it is difficult to say who came before - R1 or R2. R1”predpolozhitelno” haplogroup originated in Central or South Asia, 25-30 thousand years ago, its two major subclades R1a (M420) and R1b (M343) (other options are found only rarely) are the most common in Europe and western Eurasia. R2 haplogroup originated about 30,000 years ago in Central Asia. Later, about 25,000 years ago, it began to spread in India. R2 occurs (> 15%) in the upper caste Hindus, the Burisch, Chechens, Kurds, Parsis, Sinhalese, Roma and is limited primarily in India, Iran, Central Asia and the Caucasus. Individual cases of detection of this haplogroup are found among the European population. Outside of these regions, this marker is completely absent.
Haplogroup R1a (M420) appeared 18 - 20 thousand years ago in Asia and South Asia. Other researchers include in its distribution area Central Asia, the Middle East and even Eastern Europe. R1a has a high frequency (> 45%) among Poles, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Russians, Cossacks, Pashtuns, Tajiks, Kyrgyz, Altai and Mari. R1b (M343) has a high frequency (> 55%) in the Welsh, Irish, Basque, Portuguese, British, Dutch, Italians, friezes, Belgians and Catalans.
Haplogroup linguistic families:
IE: Slavic, Indo-Iranian, Baltic;
IE: Celtic, Italic, Germanic, Armenian;
Izolyant: Basque language
Izolyant: B urushaski
"Indo-European" haplogroup R1a and probable place of its occurrence
Let us concentrate for now on haplogroup R1a. Most recently, this haplogroup has been associated with "Indo-European" and the alleged "Aryan invasion" of India. The area of distribution of R1a is from Iceland (Vikings) to India (Brahmin) with centers of high concentration in Poland of 56.4%, 64% of Tajiks, Kyrgyz, 63%, 56% Hungarians, Ukrainians, 54% Russian 47%, 47% of Belarusians, 34% of the Kazan Tatars, makedontsev15.2%, Bulgaria 14.7%, 12.1% “gertsegovintsev”. Among the peoples of Scandinavian descent in Iceland 23%, in Sweden and Norway, 18-22%, in eastern Iran 25%. Among the Kazakhs - the rest of the typical Mongoloid - the carriers of R1a are no less than in Russia. It is also found in the western regions of China and in Eastern Siberia.
R1a is present largely in Pakistan, in southern India, the Dravidian group (to 26%), in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Indian researchers have confirmed the presence of a variety of R1a, even among the lower castes and Indian tribes outside the caste system. However, the haplogroup R1a Y-chromosome in males cannot be considered a marker of Indo-European origin, since according to the mutation rate Y-chromosome mutation R1a originated over 10,000 years ago, that is, long before the settlement of the Proto-Indo-Europeans. Moreover, recent genetic studies have shown that the Indian haplogroup R1a has a more diverse repetition in India and Iran compared with Europe and Central Asia, which means that South and Southwest Asia could be the source of its origin.
Haplogroup R1b, most common throughout Europe and western Eurasia, shows the highest diversity in Eastern Turkey and Western Iran. Thus, R1b, probably originated in the Iranian plateau. Moreover, R1b is the most likely candidate for being the "Indo-European" haplogroup for people of the "white race."
Different interpretations of the time and place of appearance of haplogroup R1a1
Various researchers have different interpretations of the results of genetic testing, and evaluations are often diametrically opposed. Age estimation is directly dependent on the method used, which is why there's no conventional wisdom of the time and place of occurrence of haplogroup R1a1.
A. Carriers of haplogroup R1a1 - ancient Aryans and Slavs
1. Interpretation of S. Wells of the National Geographic Society (U.S.)
National Geographic Society, USA (National Geographic Society) and IBM have created a research project (Genographic Project), in which they used very sophisticated laboratory and computer analysis of the DNA of hundreds of thousands of people, including natives and ordinary people in many countries and cities in order to map the population of the earth today. As part of the Genographic Project, experts identified that the marker M17 (haplogroup R1a1) appeared in the region of present-day Ukraine or southern Russia supposedly 4500 years ago. Geneticist and anthropologist Spencer Wells, Fellow of the National Geographic Society of the USA, who several years ago headed the "Genographic" project, argues that the ancestral home of the Aryans is outside India (read article here).
2. Interpretation of A. Klesov (USA)
In his research on DNA, genealogy researcher from Russia, “prozhivayushy” in Boston, Dr. “himimechskih” Sciences A. Klyosov identifies carriers of haplogroup R1a1 (M17 marker) to the ancient Aryans and Slavs. According to his calculations, the ancestors of R1a1 (Aryans) date back to 20 thousand years ago, and the progenitors of the Aryans lived in southern Siberia. The starting point of the migration was the “praariev” Balkans and began 12,000 years ago. Then they began to spread across Europe 4900 years ago - the ancestors of the settlement of the Aryans now living on the Central Plain, 4000-3600 years ago arias appeared in the Southern Urals. 3,500 years ago as they migrated to India and left a deep genetic mark on the way - 64% of Tajiks and Kyrgyz carry R1a1.
(For more information about the articles of A.Klesov see here)
Let's draw a map of the migration of "Aryans" as pictured by Klesovo. It turns out that the ancestors of the Aryans lived in southern Siberia 20,000 years ago and they did not leave behind any "material" and "cultural" tracks when they came to the Balkans 12,000 years ago. Since then, they have become “protoindoevropeytsami”. After living in the Balkans for almost 6,000 years, they (with their Aryan language) began to spread over the whole of Europe and to the east in the territory of modern Russia.
4900 years ago the Aryans formed a Slavic ethnic group (the place of the maximum concentration of R1a1). Russian people quickly began to multiply and expand their range. R1a1 is, according to Klesovo, a biological marker of the Russian ethnos. 1000 “slavyanoarii” moved further to the Urals, building a "civilization of cities" (Arch, etc.) with a variety of copper mines and international connections south to Crete. And 500 years later, they came across the Pamirs to India and created and wrote the Sanskrit Vedas.
After coming to India 3500-3600 years ago arias, carriers of haplogroup R1a1, became "Indo-Europeans."
Another migration of “slavyanoariev” through the South Stream 4200 years ago passed through Central Asia. Having lived there for 500-800 years, the Aryans moved to Iran and wrote there the Avesta. Common ancestors of Indian and Iranian haplogroup R1a1 lived about 4100 years ago, that is, 800 years before the common ancestor of modern ethnic Russian haplogroup R1a1.
3. Interpretation of N. Maksimov
Here are several interesting fragments of an article by N. Maksimov "Genographics - the Path to our Past"
"The special role of the Balkan node in the history of Europe, as evidenced by genographics was determined thousands of years ago and established a historical geography of both the European gene pools - East and West ...
What a remarkable meeting of two cultures there was in the Urals. Different gene pools (within the main gene pool of Eurasia) to the west and east of the Urals were, in the first place, due to the fact that the western and eastern portions of the Urals were home to two different races - Caucasians and Mongolians. It can be seen that the genetic boundary between Europe and Asia is in the same location - in the Urals. When people settle in different directions, mutations in geographically isolated populations accumulate, giving rise to new genetic lines. But the population is not only divided, in some periods they genetically mixed ...
Not long ago, the scientific community gathered the results of the genetic study of the remains of the ancient population of Siberia. Scientists have studied 25 bone fragments belonging to the four ancient cultures - Andronov, Karasuk, Tagar and Tashtyk that existed in what is now Krasnoyarsk Krai from the third millennium BC to the fourth century BC. The aim of the study was to identify genes for autosomal skin, hair and eyes of people. This was possible for 23 of the 25 samples. It was found that at least 60% of the investigated individuals had light (blue or green) eyes. The conclusion of the scientists was the phenotype of the most ancient samples had a typical European light pigmentation. Apparently they were characteristic features of a typical European pigment, ie blue or green eyes and light-colored hair and skin, and they are likely to have been individuals of European origin "....
In the same study, the genes of the 25 skeletal remains were compared with samples of the genes of Europeans, Asians and Africans. It was found that 22 persons were of European origin, 2 were Asian and 1 was intermediate between European and Asian. Earlier, the same remains were examined to determine their male haplogroup (Y-chromosome). This was done for the 18 samples and 17 of them belonged to the Indo-European haplogroup R1a1, and 1 to the Asian haplogroup C. Thus, there is a direct connection between the Indo-European male haplogroup R1a1, European autosomal genes and light pigmentation. "
4. Interpretation of Turin
According to another Russian researcher Tyurin, a genetic Y-haplogroup R1a haplogroup is an elite Slav group - the Aryans. In his article, he writes: "There are three arrays of genetic information - maps of the distribution of blood groups, the data substantiating the presence of a common ancestor of the Slavs and the populations of the Northern Indian subcontinent, as well as characteristic distribution of Europoid caste populations in the South Indian subcontinent, directly and unequivocally attest to the truthfulness of one of the most exciting hypotheses: the New Chronology of Fomenko and GV Nosovsky - the Aryans came to India from the Russian Horde."
In contrast to the above estimates, there are other estimates.
© P Oleksenko, 2011
© L Fitzpatrick, 2012 (translation)
We, P.Oleksenko the authors of this work, and L.Fitzpatrick the translator of this work, give permission to use this for any purpose except prohibited by applicable law, on condition that our authorship and hyperlink to the site http://earthbeforeflood.com is given.
Read works by P.Oleksenko "Nuclear War has Occurred in the Past and Left Many Traces. Geological Evidences of Nuclear and Thermonuclear War Conflicts in the Past" (with A.Koltypin), "Secrets of the downfall of Mohenjo-daro. Whether the city was destroyed by a nuclear explosion 4000 years ago?", "Bridge of Rama - an amazing work of nature or ancient megalith "(with N.Skripkin), "Artifacts of ancient India. Part 1. What is written in the Vedas about", "Part 2. Sanskrit - the language of gods "and other