Mineral oil (petroleum), bituminous shales and asphaltites with heightened contents of vanadium, nickel, iridium and other metals
The hypothesis about transformation of organic remnants (remains) consisting of perishing during catastrophes plants, animals, people, other reasonable beings and products of their life activity in mineral oil (petroleum) and natural gas allows to look in an absolutely new fashion at some specific features of chemical composition of mineral oils (petroleum), bituminous shales and natural bitumens - asphaltites, and also coal-bearing stratas and other sedimentary rocks, deposited simultaneously with them.
The matter is that mineral oil (petroleum) from many oil fields (first of all, heavy high-sulphur crude oil) and almost all bituminous shales and asphaltites contain heightened concentrations of vanadium, nickel, cobalt, platinoids (including iridium), gold and of some other elements, and sometimes furthermore and uranium. There are especially many in them of vanadium and nickel, contents of which attain accordingly 300 g/t (in petroleum) and 6-25 kg/t (in asphaltites) and 150 g/t (in petroleum) and 0,3-1 kg/t (in asphaltites). In many oil fields (in Venezuela, Peru, the Ural Mountains, etc.) these metals are present at industrial quantities.
Vanadium and nickel replace iron and magnesium in so-called porphyrinic complexes of petroleum which have been formed in the result of diagenetic transformation of chlorophyll pigment and haemoglobin, and also form organometallic compounds.
Coals and carbonaceous shales with heightened contents of uranium, vanadium and nickel - the sediments of the epochs of catastrophes
Coals, carbonaceous shales and other sediments, rich in organic of vegetable and animal origin, which deposited during epochs of catastrophes (and here), contain almost everywhere heightened concentrations of uranium (5-200 g/t). This element is also present in great quantities in many other sediments which occur at boundaries of different geologic epochs (the Vend and Cambrian, the Devonian and Carbon, the Permian and Triassic, the Cretaceous and Paleogene, the Eocene and Oligocene etc.) and deposited in (at) time very close to catastrophes (more exact dating usually misses). These are thin layers and strata (from several centimetres up to 20-50 m) of different composition, occuring on vast areas and containing in tens and hundreds times more uranium, than rocks located above and below. Heightened concentrations of vanadium, nickel and some other elements which are present in mineral oil (petroleum), bituminous shales and bitumens, are also observed in them often enough.
The spent laboratory trials have shown that million years are not necessary for formation of mineral coals, as it was considered earlier. They could be formed for several millenaries, that is, according to geological measures, "almost instantaneously", if there were high temperature and pressure in places of burial of a great quantity of plant remains, and there were no oxygen. All listed conditions were character for periods of catastrophes.
Sediments enriched by uranium - benchmarks of catastrophes and change of species diversity of fauna and flora
According to the doctor in Geology, the head of division of the National Oil (petrolic) Geological Prospecting Scientific Research Institute S.G. Neruchev, sediments (deposits) containing uranium are spread all over the terrestrial globe. They are literally larded by remains of micro-organisms, basically green algaes and green-blue algaes (cyanobacterias). In some places content of organic in them reachs 20 % whereas in ordinary sedimentary strata it rarely exceeds 0,6 %. These sediments are benchmarks which mark sharp change of species diversity of fauna and flora.
S.G. Neruchev cites surprising data that sedimentation of rich with organic and uranium deposits (sediments) happened against (the background of) the loss of the majority of organisms having lived earlier He relates it to an effect … of uranium radioactive radiation! And high radiation (oceans of that time, according to his data, contained in tens and hundreds times larger quantity of uranium, than now) simultaneously favoured flourishing of green algaes and cyanobacterias, which adsorbed this element from water, precipitated it and resulted in formation of strata enriched by uranium.
But it is not all yet. Radiation was a powerful factor of mutagenesis of living organisms which resulted in sharp change of species diversity of plants and animals after catastrophe. And, after deposition (accumulation) of enriched by organic and uranium strata, new boom of development of life was observed at that. As though it nothing was before.
Planetary distribution of layers enriched by uranium, vanadium, nickel, iridium and other metals, timed to epoch of catastrophes
High contents of vanadium and nickel in mineral oils (petroleum), asphaltites, coals and other sedimentary rocks are connected by the majority of explorers with their supply to sediments (deposits) from decomposing remaints (remnants). Heightened concentrations of uranium are explained by their selective deposition by plant remaints (remnants) and bones of animals.
Most likely, both these process really result in formation of separate strata and deposits milled (rich) with these elements. However, they do not explain heightened concentrations of these metals on the whole earth and their accurate locating to layers, deposited during catastrophes. Besides, vanadium, nickel and other metals are present in plants and animals in lesser (sometimes in much smaller) quantities, than in mineral oils (petroleum) and coals (vanadium: 0,006 % or 60 g/t in ash of plants and 0,0001-0,00001 % or 0,1-1 g/t in animals; nickel: 0,00005 % or 0,5 g/t in crude plants and 0,0001-0,000001 % or 0,01-1 g/t in animals). They are mobile enough and should be washed by water from places of burials of organic materials sooner, than deposited in it.
Approximately likewise with uranium which is dispersed uniformly in sedimentary rocks and extremely seldom form heightened concentrations, except for events of forming of deposits associated with organic matters, adsorbing it. But the fact of the matter is that uranium, vanadium, nickel and other metals, including iridium, found out by L. Alvares at the boundary of Cretaceous-Paleogene sediments, form heightened concentrations on the whole earth, and their high contents are characteristic (typical) basically for boundary sediments, formed during catastrophes.
Means, and it is difficult to argue against it, supply (arrival) of all these elements on the Earth surface was somewise relate to catastrophes.
Hypotheses about sources of uranium, vanadium, nickel, iridium and other metals
There are, at least, two hypotheses about sources of these elements. One of them has been stated by S.G.
Hypothesis of S.G. Neruchev. Supply of uranium, vanadium and nickel along rift zones and faults during catastrophes
S.G. Neruchev considers that uranium and other heavy metals arrived on a day surface from deep layers of the Earth along rift zones and faults which were formed "in separate short-time periods of history" of our planet. I would like to add that such "short-time periods" could be catastrophes when there were intense tectonic movements all over Earth. They resulted in formation of rift zones and other deep faults.
The hypothesis of S.G. Neruchev does not explain, however, the reason of appearence of heightened concentrations of uranium (and vanadium which should arrive from there too) in deep layers of the Earth. After all, most of all uranium is contained in sedimentary rocks in an upper part of the Earth crust - clays (argillites) and shales (0,00032 % or 3,2 g/t) and granites (0,00032 % or 3,5 g/t), and layind under them basalts and ultrabasic rocks of the upper mantle contain much less uranium (accordingly 0,00005 % or 0,5 g/t and 0,0000003 % or 0,003 g/t).
Means, there remains the second hypothesis.
Hypothesis of A. Koltypin. Formation of uranium, vanadium and nickel in the result of nuclear explosions during wars of gods and demons
Hypothesis of A. Koltypin consists in the following. Vanadium, nickel and, probably, other elements (including iridium situated in boundary sediments) are products of nuclear fission and radioactive disintegration of some one or several isotopes used in the capacity of "fuel" in ammunitions of disappeared long time ago civilizations. Now the basic similar isotopes are U235 and Pu239 during radioactive decay of which radioactive isotopes Cs137, I131, Zr95, Sr90, C14 are formed. But, as it is known, many other isotopes, including isotopes with smaller atomic weight during disintegration of wich could form vanadium and nickel, have radioactivity and capacity of decay. Our civilisation uses uranium and plutonium only because technologies of their extraction from rocks and nuclear reactors and of subsequent concentration are developed. But it does not mean at all that civilizations having existed before could not use other isotopes, mine other minerals and receive in industrial quantities others, not used now, elements.
It is not unlikely, they could do not only these, and, for example, receive and use radioactive isotopes of iridium and vanadium or situated close to them in the periodic table elements. Or could apply vanadium as the source of noxious vapours in some chemical weapons. After all, lethal dose of V2O5 for a person is only 2-4 mg/m3 of air.
As to heightened concentrations of uranium in fossil sediments are concernthis element quite could deposit in sedimentary layers at explosion of uranic or of plutonium bombs. Such "fuel" should contain up to 15 %, and probably more, U238 not entering chain reactions of nuclear fission (if to take for the basis the modern nuclear bombs). This isotope could supply (arrive) in water and soil, be absorbed by one-celled marine organisms, and then accumulate in rich with organic sediments, typical for time of catastrophes.
And it is not necessary at that, that heightened radioactivity during catastrophes, to which S.G. Neruchev relates mutagenesis, had been related only to uranium!
The section "Remains of disappeared civilizations"
© A.Koltypin, 2009
I, A. Koltypin the author and translator of this work give permission to use this for any purpose except prohibited by applicable law, on condition that our authorship and hyperlink to the site http://earthbeforeflood.com is given.
Read my work "Great battle of white gods and demon-snakes (dragons) for Earth. A new look at the cause of the Cretaceous-Paleogene catastrophe"
Read also my works "A.Koltypin, P.Oleksenko. Nuclear war has occured in the past and left many traces. Geological evidences of nuclear and thermonuclear war conflicts in the past" (with P.Oleksenko), "Who was a side losing (Who was lost) nuclear war 12,000 years ago? The legacy of the past in Australian legends", "Extermination of people by Hathor and Libyan Desert Glass", and P.Oleksenko work "Lonar crater - the evidence of a nuclear war in ancient India"