L.Fitzpatrick. Potholes. Part 3. Horseshoe Escarpments with Waterfalls - Earth before the Flood: Disappeared Continents and Civilizations

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L.Fitzpatrick. Potholes. Part 3. Horseshoe Escarpments with Waterfalls

Collection of inexplicable things and facts

Waterfalls commonly fall over tall escarpments and carve out potholes called plunge pools. But many waterfalls fall over huge horseshoe escarpments that are too large for such small waterfalls to have carved them. Wider falls like Niagara Falls carve out large semi-circular horseshoe-shaped arcs that are open at the downstream end. The greatest amount of water force in the center of the water flow causes the most recession of the cliff and a horseshoe shape is carved. We will see this same horseshoe shape later when we get into the giant, more complex pothole topographies.

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From left to right: horseshoe escarpment formed at Niagara Falls, NY due to retreat of the falls and rock debris falling down the falls carves out a plunge pool at the bottom of the falls; Niagara Falls Plunge Pool Recession Diagram; Looking down into the lower plunge pool from the bridge at  Multnomah Falls, Columbia Gorge, Oregon        

From left to right: Salto del Agrio, Parque Provincial Copahue, Neuquén, Argentina; Dangar Falls, NSW, Australia – this is a small stream flow for such a large escarpment. Is this now an undersized stream? What carved the big round basin?; Formation of a plunge pool pothole below a waterfall   

From left to right: Palouse Falls - SE Washington State - a giant pothole caused by the Missoula Flood  - now it has an undersized stream that has cut a small notch in the cliff where once a much larger amount of water flowed - Gary Randall photographer;  Multnomah Falls, Columbia Gorge – a tall, narrow waterfall that falls into a large deep basin that was probably  not carved out by this skinny waterfall. Google Earth shows the basin – it is not included here. This waterfall is at the downstream end of the Columbia River gorge – far from the scabland topography of eastern Washington; ‘Heart of Kauai’, Mount Wai-ale-ale crater at the center of the island - photographed by Leona Boyd – this is the rainiest place on earth

From left to right: Horseshoe cataract cliff of Angel Falls looking down from the top, Venezuela with an undersized waterfall - on the Auyantepui sandstone mesa, Guiana Highlands; Baatara Gorge Waterfall, Tannourine ,Lebanon – a complex, gorgeous, big, deep, multi-level pothole with a trickle of a waterfall running thru it.   A lot more water had to flow thru here to carve out this huge pothole; golden reflection    

From left to right: Венесуэла, Гора Рораима,национальный парк - potholes are found atop a tepui (mesa) in Canaima National Park, Venezuela – same place as Angel Falls; Вид на поток водопада Баатара из пещеры; Baatara pothole, near Tannourine, Lebanon – inside the top of the pothole with people for scale to show how big it is

From left to right: Водопад Баатара с высоты зимой - the top of Batarra Gorge, Lebanon showing how tiny the waterfall is compared to the huge pothole below  – perhaps flood water coming from all directions poured down this hole to carve out this beautiful pothole?; DevilsPunchBowl, Ontario

©  Laura Fitzpatrick 2014

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