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Lost civilization traces
It is really worth seeing the best of all and not glooming over trifles. Not once did our plans and intentions be failed and things were occurred to be turning out in the worst possible manner. But the time passed and we could see that the worst-case scenario led us to the results which opened wider opportunities for us to continue our investigations.
This year, in January, the program I use for creating my web-site has stopped functioning on all my computers simultaneously and all of a sudden. For a few months I have tried to solve this problem with the manufacture’s experts but was not successful. The program worked properly on their computers. And they could not understand what I wanted from them.
Busy with this problem I did not update the site, did not visit the forum. And the photographs of the latest expedition to Israel in February, 2015, and those of petrified wheel treads (so called "cart ruts") on the Neogene peneplanation plane provided by A. Kuznetsov (the partner in the expedition to Turkey in October, 2014) were left aside. But everything comes to an end one day. In half a year of this mission downtime I found the way of continuing my work on the site starting with publishing A. Kuznetsov’s photographs.
A new insight into an old problem. That was how I could see petrified wheel treads on the Neogene peneplanation plane a few months later
While looking through and analyzing the photographs I noticed so important peculiarities of petrified wheel treads which I might have missed if I had not had such a long break between the periods of publishing two large portions of photographs of petrified wheel treads (here and here).
Thoughtfully, I returned to the time when I was making investigations in the North-East of the Soviet Union and working on paleogeographical and paleogeodinamical reconstructions of the conditions of this region during the deposition of sediments. They were based on Ch. Layel’s principle of actualism which lies in accepting analogues between modern physical, chemical, geological, and geographical processes and those of ancient times.
Principle of actualism is the key principle of Geology
During my work in geological parties the principle of actualism was considered to be the fundamental principle of Geology. And so is it nowadays.
However, some investigators in their scientific works try to prove that this principle does not work. Their arguments are those of imperfect methods of absolute chronology, differences in the periods of present and past processes, changes of the passage of time and others. The most part of these investigations pertains to creative scientists. The tendency of significant shortening of the geological chronical of the Earth and assigning the geological scale to the Bible chronology is called creative science.
In my work “Historical, religious and mythological schemes of periodization of the Earth and the Mankind History – fact or fancy”, I demonstrated that the classical Bible chronology, which investigations of creative scientists are based on, has nothing to do with the real (factual) chronology. And today, as before, there is not a single reason for putting the correctness of the principle of actualism in doubt.
The ocean bottom has thousands of drilled boreholes. Scores of volumes the size of the Soviet Encyclopedia – each with the reports of oceanic sediments drilling received from the ships Glomar Challenger and Glomar Exploiter – were published. The rate of deposition is defined with a minimum deviation. The surface of the Earth is covered with geological surveys of different scale. The detailed stratigraphic schemes are worked out and the facial analysis of deposition of different regions is conducted. The geological investigations conducted in oceans and on continents let us identify with confidence the deposition of ancient eras with those of different areas of oceans, seas, lakes, swamps and rivers and reconstruct the conditions which existed on ancient and contemporary platforms as well as in fold-mountain areas in the geological past. They hardly differed from current conditions. In the Riphean, Cambrian, Carboniferous, Cretaceous, Neogene and other periods during the last one or two billions of years the Earth had the same form and sizes, continents and oceans.
Continents consisted of platforms and early continental landmasses of folded zones appeared in the result of collisions. The ocean bottom was made up of a shelf, a continental slope, a root (of a mountain) and a deep-water hole (an abyssal plain) with underwater mountains and insular arcs. There existed lagoons, swamps, lakes and rivers on the continents. There were accumulated the same sediments in the past as there are in similar areas of oceans and continents nowadays.
There is not a single known argument proving that the rate of sediment assumption in the past differs from that of the present days significantly. Therefore, it is possible to define the period of deposition if the layer of homogeneous deposits – say, 1-kilometer-deep – assumed on a continental shelf, a slope or an abyssal plain (the last though is hardly possible due to an extremely slow rate of sediment assumption in this area of the ocean) will be plotted on a geological map or a geological section.
The period is calculated by means of dividing the rate of sediment assumption received from the analysis of ocean drilling in similar areas of a nowaday ocean by the strength of deposition to its rate. As a result, we get 1,10 and even tens of millions of years. Provided that this calculation is conducted for the whole stratigraphic period known in the area, it is possible to define the period of time during which a continental crust (or a part of it) of an early or nowaday platform or a fold-mountain area has been formed. That is supposed to be hundreds of thousands of times older than the age of a continental crust defined by creative scientists on the basis of the Bible chronology.
I would ask them a question of how they can explain why the sediment assumption of many kilometers had been assumed for a relatively short period of time – hundreds or thousands of years. As a rule, the answer is that all the sediments which are more than 3 or 4 thousand years old have been assumed during the catastrophe.
Assuming this is true, we will try to calculate the rate of sediment assumption during the catastrophe. It is to be from a few hundred meters up to several kilometers per year, and besides, the sediments must have been assumed in huge areas simultaneously. According to the borehole-drilling reports, the rate of a contemporary sediment assumption in the shelf area and near the continental rises has been from 3 to 50 cm for a thousand of years and up to tens and hundreds of meters opposite the mouths of large rivers for the same period of time. Meanwhile, the rate of sediment assumption on abyssal plains is much less – from 0,1 to 10 mm for a thousand of years.
But this is the thin edge of the wedge. Assuming that the age of the Earth is 6 000 years, according to classical creative scientists, based on the Bible chronology, or even 6 million years, according to neo-creative scientists, we can easily define the rate of a continental drift of South and North America from Africa and Europe being not less than 25 km per year, or not less than 250 m per year.
According to the latest satellite measurements, the rate of a continental drift is 2-4 cm per year, and besides, this rate has not been changed for the past 150 million years.
There is a score of arguments in favour of the principle of actualism. But it is quite enough to mention that the period of sediment assumption defined by the strength and the facial composition of deposits is relevant to the age of fauna and flora remains alongside with an absolute age of upper and lower parts of masses.
The History of the Phrygian Valley in the middle and late Miocene reconstructed on the basis of the principle of actualism
Having wandered from the point I aimed at arguing away the opponents of Ch. Layel’s principle of actualism. Now let me go back to the subject of this article – the Neogene peneplanation plane and petrified wheel treads.
I decided upon an intention to carry out the analysis of the structure and development of this area on the basis of the principle of actualism which was used in both my dissertation and geological investigations of the North-East of the Soviet Union.
No sooner said than done.
While studying and structuring A. Kuznetsov’s photographs of petrified wheel treads I divided them into 7 thematic sections in order to support my conclusions concerning the genesis and age of treads and the history of this area.
The first conclusions and suppositions
Wheeled vehicles would run along wat viscous ground in the middle and late Miocene
In Section 1, general views of petrified wheel treads which perfectly add to the earlier published photographs are depicted. In the notes of the photographs my attention was captured with a hilly relief of the Neogene peneplanation plane alongside with the overcoming of obstacles in the form of pileup and heaps of wat viscous ground of tuffaceous and terrigenous materials (tuffs, tuffits, tuffaceous sedimentary rock) at the moment of wheeled vehicles running, the treads intersecting and the last being intersected by faults with veinlets of hydrothermal minerals.
Time difference of tracking came to my notice. Earlier treads were strongly smoothed by erosion, whereas younger treads covering smoothed old tracks while crossing them appeared to be better preserved. It can be explained this way: before the time new vehicles ran across along old treads, the last managed to “melt” due to abundant rainfalls (at least, to those which took place during the riding of earlier vehicles). Supposing that the period of time enough for old treads erosion passed between the riding of earlier vehicles and the following ones sounds less possible. Different depth of well-preserved younger treads can prove gradual drying of ground.
While classifying intersecting treads together with enclosing tuffs and tuffits of the Neogene peneplanation plane of splits and cracks I paid attention to the fact that the erosion of cracks equally affects the bottom, the sides of the treads and enclosing formation. It proves that the cracks were formed after the treads.
Revision of preliminary results.
Wheeled vehicles deeply sinking in the ground overcame heaps of mud
In Section 2, the treads overcoming obstacles in the form of hills, pileup and heaps of wat viscous ground and intersecting other treads were the focus. The photographs published in this section tend to demonstrate that wheeled vehicles such as cars, cross-country vehicles and something else which existed in the Neogene, ran along uneven wat ground consisted of the mixture (composition) of tuffaceous and terrigenous (sandy and clayish) stuff; they crossed hills, pileup and heaps of fossil mud; they got stuck in them skidding from time to time just like modern cars and cross-country vehicles do. Later on, this fossil ground hardened into stone forming the Neogene peneplanation plane.
What does the Phrygian Valley look like in the middle and late Miocene?
I tried to imagine what the Phrygian Valley looked like in the middle and late Miocene. I could hardly find its contemporary analogue since a hilly area usually has a solid basis, whilst viscous swampy, lacustrine and flood deposits have even surface (treads do not appear in sand dunes and barchans).
However, it is about time to study historic and folklore data seeing that the discovery of contemporary analogues appears to be beyond our possibilities. (see full Russian text)
The ground of the Phrygian Valley dried up with the first and the last wheeled vehicles riding
The photographs of the intersection of treads published in Section 2 prove, as we have mentioned above, that wheeled vehicles would have been riding for quite a long period of time. The first vehicles rode here when the ground was more wat and viscous – probably, because of rains – the following ones ran along the ground when it started or continued to dry.
Petrified wheel treads are crossed by faults formed in the middle and late Miocene – it means they are older than the faults
In Section 3, the second modification of treads is discussed in details. There can be seen an extremely strong erosion of petrified wheel treads and secondary minerals crust under them similar to those of the Neogene peneplanation plane in a score of presented photographs.
In Sections 2-3, a strong fracturing (including intersecting treads and parallel cracks) and block tectonics of the [link:36]Neogene peneplanation[/link:36] plane with treads located on it, grooves and creek valleys intersecting the treads along the faults are demonstrated.
In one the pictures of Section 3 it is clearly seen that the grooves alongside the faults are filled with petrified tuffogenic sedimentary material. (see full Russian text)
The Neogene peneplanation plane with petrified treads forms tectonic blocks and klippes around the areas of unconsolidated Quaternary deposits
In Sections 3-4, it is clearly seen that the treads have been formed in the raised blocks of the Miocene tuffs and tuffits separated along strike slip faults and upthrow shifts from ravines and flat zones, filled with unconsolidated quaternary deposits. Consequently, faults are often natural borders of treads which stop extending or continue extending after the zones of unconsolidated quaternary deposits.
Petrified wheel treads are overlapped by unconsolidated quaternary deposits
In Section 4, there are a collection of examples demonstrating that all the petrified wheel treads located in the Phrygian Valley alongside with the Neogene peneplanation plane are overlapped with unconsolidated quaternary deposits – they are easily identified with the help of grass, bushes and trees growing on them – of valleys, creek valleys, and raised slopes. They are also intersected in many places by narrow straight-line hollows (grooves, creek valleys and others) formed along the splits and filled with quaternary deposits dividing the treads into parts.
As it has been mentioned above, many treads are separated from quaternary deposits by splits (strike slip faults and upthrow shifts) and, thus, they are abruptly ended up.
One of the pictures comes under our notice as it demonstrates a piece of mud squeezing out of a wheel leaving a tread.
A close-up view of treads allows us to reconstruct an image of wheeled vehicles
There are different kinds of a close-up view of treads in Section 5. It can be especially interested for experts of automobiles, cross-country vehicles and some other wheeled vehicles.
The discussion of petrified wheel treads in the framework of the forum has already brought its results. Some readers shared well-reasoned suppositions as to how wheeled vehicles leaving treads looked like. And one of the readers offered to apply for patent for manufacturing an automotive transport similar to that which left treads but more passable than nowaday cross-country vehicles.
The bases of buildings and traces of cargo near the treads
In Section 6, the photographs of different kinds of deepening, grooves and traces near the treads are presented. During our previous trip to the Phrygian Valley we could see a few of such structures in the area of petrified wheel treads. A. Kuznetsov contributed significantly to raise public’s awareness of a large number of rectangular zones – rock-cut or dug out of ground – together with traces linked with petrified wheel treads. Some is located near the treads and looks like a foundation ditch of a small house or other buildings of a more complicated form, while others intersect the treads, or is located near them, and look like a trace of cargo lying – on logs or boards or, perhaps, on something like tarpaulin – on wat viscous ground.
Circular holes – after the use of drilling machines – in parallel linear deepening of ground which could be used as a pole bracket are worth being drawn to attention.
The Phrygian Valley “inherited” a hilly relief of the middle and late Miocene left by the flood
A few important pictures of the Neogene peneplanation plane (a piece of land) are presented in Section 7. They demonstrate the peneplanation plane to be of a complicated relief – this means that, firstly, there were the same mountains and valleys in the middle and late Miocene as nowadays, and, secondly, tuffogenic and sedimentary deposits were assumed both in valleys and on shoulders of mountains in the middle and late Miocene. It tends to prove the above mentioned version of their formation during the flood.
Are Petrified wheel treads and fairy houses in Cappadocia of the same age?
In one of the photographs it is clearly seen that tuffs and tuffits with petrified wheel treads form tight formation located on tuffs and tuffits which are more viscous and subject to weathering. According to another picture, more tight formation (tuffs and tuffits) enclosing treads on raised areas of relief are supposed to be subject to Cappadocian type of weathering. In this sense, the idea of comparing the age of petrified wheel treads in the Phrygian Valley and that of fairy houses of Cappadocia sounds extremely exciting.
Conclusions. The history of the Phrygian Valley in the middle and late Miocene.
The Neogene rescuers and victims of flood
The analysis of A. Kuznetsov’s photographs of petrified wheel treads, different types of deepening, hollows and traces alongside with peculiarities of the Neogene peneplanation plane, enclosing treads, according to classical Geology and Ch. Layel’s principle of actualism (which, in this context, lies in acknowledging that the sediment assumption and climate in the Miocene and those of present days are similar) leads us to the following conclusions:
1. Wheeled vehicles leaving treads rode along the Phrygian Valley at about the time when the Neogene peneplanation plane (a piece of land) was being formed. It can be dated back to the middle and late Miocene. According to the defined absolute age of volcanic rock assemblages of Kirka-Afiyon-Ispartan volcanic belt in areas of rock exposures of the early, middle and late Miocene on a geological map of Turkey of a scale of 500.000, within 14-12 million years ago, in the middle Miocene.
2. Wheeled vehicles rode along wat viscous ground (similar to clay or clay loam) during a long period of time keeping… the direction. Rather a strong deformation of the earliest treads enables us to suppose there were regular and abundant rainfalls when the first wheeled vehicles riding. The fact that intersecting treads were better reserved could attest that it had been raining from time to time and not so abundantly or, perhaps, it had stopped raining at all. However, the ground was still wat and wheeled vehicles sank deeply in the ground. According to a variable depth of well-preserved petrified treads, the process of ground drying was prolonged. This supposition, however, is not supported by the area observation.
3. Wheeled vehicles rode along piled-up wat tuffogenic and sedimentary deposits caused by both the flood and active volcanos. The time they were riding, the Phrygian Valley had a hilly relief with separate small mountains, lakes, swamps, and small volcanic piles. Here and there pileups lent upon the mountains overlapping them, so to say, and reached their peaks.
4. Wide spreading of underground buildings and towns the age of treads near the petrified wheel treads and in many other places of Turkey and neighbouring countries is related to our supposition that the area of the Phrygian Valley and other regions of the Mediterranean were flooded in the middle and late Miocene.
Flood hypothesis coincides with legends of many nations of the world – about the period of dark during the flood. Therefore, human beings and other creatures existing before people or, perhaps, at one and the same time had nothing to do but to construct buildings underground.
5. Further events in the Phrygian Valley can be reconstructed by means of geological, archeological and folklore data (with the help of three sciences).
After the water retreated survivors (human beings or other creatures) escaping from the catastrophe in large stationary shelters underground or watertight vessels or in space. They used wheeled vehicles like cross-country transport to ride along wat viscous ground. The first pathfinders appeared in the Phrygian Valley during abundant rainfalls with no Sun (or it was, probably, showing up behind the clouds).
Then, the Sun appeared and, according to Maya’s bible Popol Vuh, was so hot that the Earth started to dry up very fast.
The fact that the flood and the period of dark were mentioned in the legends of different nations all over the world let us suppose that the flood was planetary.
By “fast” they, probably, meant the period of time related to a week, a month, or even years or decades while wheeled vehicles kept on riding around the Valley. Varieties of treads depth was conditioned by fast drying of wat viscous ground – from a few centimeters up to 1-2 or even more meters deep.
6. Rescue mission appears to be the main goal of people or other creatures coming back to Central Anatolia. The conclusion is based on the fact that wheeled vehicles rode in this region for rather a long period of time routing near rock and underground towns and shelters, constructing plenty of houses and other buildings and delivering cargo.
This supposition is proved by the South American legends about a white God Vira Kocha and his people who appeared out of the waters of Titicaca lake after the flood at the end of the period of dark. They wandered about surrounding rocks knocking on the covers of underground shelters and telling people and other creatures that the flood was over and they could go out. Assuming the flood being global (and it could not be otherwise) other rescuers were assured to call people out of underground shelters in the Phrygian Valley. Besides, as we can see, they did not walk but drove wheeled vehicles.
Here I could finish my article but it would not be me. I would like to tell my readers that such sorrowful periods in the history of the development of the Mankind (and before the Mankind) when a score of generations had to live underground facing the consequences of the catastrophe, the flood, the absence of the Sun (it is proved by the fact that there are no traces of flora on the Neogene peneplanation plane) – all this is concealed by historians and archeologists. Official science keeps silent and avoids spreading the information about the heroes of the Phrygian Valley who were saving underground survivors, despite the hardest conditions and, probably, at the risk of their own lives. All of them are caused to forget, enwrapped in silence as if they had never existed.
Also, both geological and archeological works and reports do not contain information on multiple traces of wheels. And those which did tried to persuade us that these traces were left by carriageы with donkeys or camels.
I will never accept it and will contribute to spread information about those nameless heroes for succeeding generations to remember them. I myself will always remember them and many other inhabitants of our planet wiped from our history. I hope that the proofs provided in this article persuade my readers that those heroes, past and gone, deserves to be in our memory. We also have the right to know what kind of sufferings prior civilization had to face and overcome. I consider it is inhuman to conceal this information.
See a score of photographs of petrified wheel treads of Turkey in the expeditions' reports Roads of the Neogene time (the Phrygian Valley, Turkey), Neogene peneplanation plane of Phrygian Valley (Turkey), Roads of the Neogene time (the Phrygian Valley, Turkey). Continuation (7 pages). Have also a look at many photos of stone ruts of the Crimea "Petrified traces of the wheels in the Paleogene limestones of Crimea" and Spain (5 expeditions' reports - Castellar de Meca, Bokairent, Jumilla, Padul, Tiermes)
Read my other articles about the treads (cart ruts) Automobile roads of the Neogene time in Central Turkey, Stone Crimea ruts - dirt roads of the Neogene period, Global network of the Neogene (15-6 million years ago) roads and ruts in the Mediterranean region and A. Kuznetsov’s article “The Phrygian Valley. Roadside picnic (Turkey, 2014)
"Remains of Disappeared Civilizations" section
© A Koltypin, 2015
© I Dotsenko, 2016 (translation)
We, A. Koltypin the authors of this work, and I. Dotsenko, the translator of this work, give permission to use this for any purpose except prohibited by applicable law, on condition that our authorship and hyperlink to the site http://earthbeforeflood.com is given.