The data received by American orbit space stations, landers and mars rovers give evidence concerning the presence of great amount of fine clastic sedimentary rocks on Mars which have deposited in the existed tens - first millions years ago oceans and seas. The average annual temperature on Martian equator, thanks to greenhouse effect, could attain then +30°C.
First millions - hundreds (perhaps, tens) thousand years ago immensely strong tectonic and volcanic activity appeared on Mars, in the result of which seas and oceans had disappeared from the planet face, and basalts effused on great areas. Also a change of conditions of sedimentations from terrigenous marine to sedimentation of salts in continental conditions took place. The cause of it was a global catastrophe connected with impact of an asteroid (asteroids) with Mars, remnants of which are now Fobos and Deymos. Dzhafar Arkani-Hamed from Canadian University of Makgil calculated that during the catastrophe there was a shift of Mars' (rotation) axis not less than 30 degrees.
After the catastrophe Mars any time still presented a theoretically suitable for life planet. Abundant of river valleys from 2 km to 50-100 km in breadth with an erosive cut from 1 km to 10 km in depth, systems of river terraces and landslides give a base to suppose that this period of time could last up to several million years. However, the most of this time acid rains poured out from the toxicant Mars atmosphere, and oxygen content in the atmosphere was rapidly decreased.
In the "Great catastrophe on Mars" by A. Koltypin the scenario of the great Martian catastrophe which differed practically nothing from described in the article "Great catastrophes in the history of Earth" the scenario of great catastrophes on Earth, is recollected (recovered). The time of the catastrophe is estimated in range of several hundreds (tens) thousand years - 5 million, maximum 16 million years ago.
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