Cross in pre-Columbian America
Under the testimony of Garsilaso de Vega when Spaniards appeared for the first time in Cuzco, they saw at the kings of Incas a cross from red-white jasper. It was at them from very old times, and from which, they did not know. In 1560 Garsilaso saw this cross "in the sacristy of the cathedral church of that city in which it hung on a nail by means of a cord passing through a hole, done in the top of the cross …. The cross was square, equal in length and altitude; at length it had about three quarters of vara, sooner less, than more, and its width was in three fingers, and almost the same thickness; it has been made from one piece, very well trimmed, with very clear cut angles, all the equal [size], forming a square; the stone has been good ground and polished. It was stored in one of the royal houses in the rear room which is called vaka that means a sacred place".
Incas did not worship to this cross, but treated it with respect, the reason of what they also could not explain. So they had been storing the cross, until Fransisco Pisarro had not seized Cuzco. Further Spaniards built the Christian temple and hung up this cross in it - in that place in which Garsilaso de Vega saw it.
Equilateral, Grecian or Roman cross
The equilateral cross which Spaniards saw in Cuzco, is called Grecian or Roman cross. This sign (quadrata) used from prehistoric times in the most various meanings - as a symbol of the god of the Sun, the god of the Rain and elements from which the world was constructed: air, earth, light, water, composing togerther a symbol of life. In early Christianity a greek cross symbolized Christ, later it began to be honoured in the capacity of a symbol of charity and patience; in this meaning it has reached our days, meaning, first of all, medicine and everything that is related to help to a person. The modified form of this cross is the Christian cross, one arm (side) of which is longer than others.
Besides the grecian cross there are a great quantity of crosses differing under the form:
TAU - cross
- A Tau (TAB), resembling the letter "T', which are a symbol of life. Kabbalists consider it as a sign of heaven, universal wisdom and world order, Pythagoreans - as tetraxis that, per se, was the same. This cross widely used in mysteries of Mitra (god of the Sun of ancient Zoroastrians and Indians);
- An Ankh (Crux Ansata) - the same tau-cross (a symbol of life), only topped from above by a circle or an oval (an symbol of eternity). It is a symbol of (the) immortality. It is still called by a Tau - cross - Crux Ansata, and also a Cross of life. One of Old Christian legends say, the key from the doors of Paradise which had been given to the saint Peter had such form. In Ancient Egypt the ankx was perceived as a key which open a gate to divine knowledge.
In more later periods an ankx was associated with images of god Seth in chains which Greeks identified with Typhon. It was hanged to a patient's neck in the capacity of an amulet reviving vital force. This cross was a symbol of heavens and immortality for Scandinavians, a symbol of rejuvenation and release from corporal hurt for maya. Its form is interpreted as the rising sun, unity of opposites or a source of inexhaustible vital force;
- A swastika - a cross with bent ends ("rotating"), directed or clockwise ("the correct" swastika which indicate rotation of the Earth around the Sun), or counterclockwise (the "irregular" swastika). "The correct" swastika is considered as a symbol of the Sun and the source of life, light, fortune, happiness and creation. It is conceived as the wheel of life and indicates visible movement of the Sun around Earth and partition of year into four parts - four seasons. Sometimes a swastika is identified with one more sun sign - a cross in a circle where the cross is a sign of daily motion of the Sun.
In early Christianity the swastika was known as a gammadion (gammation, cruce gammate). According to French explorer of religious tradition XIX-XX centuries Rene Genon, till the end of the Middle Ages a swastika was one of emblems of Christ. It can be seen on old orthodox icons;
See my photos in the work "Swastka in Chinese temple Wat Mang Gon" (Tailand)"
Cruciform (cross-shaped) nimbus
- A cruciform (cross-shaped) nimbus over the head of Christ, and sometimes the Holy Ghost, integrating a nimbus (a symbol of divine energy, sanctity or power), and a greek cross (a symbol of life).
There are abundance of variations and combinations of numbered above and other crosses.
Cross in ancient (before the Nativity of Christ) world
Rock paintings of a cross, sculptures and bas-reliefs with a cross, articles of cross-shaped form, buildings in the form of a cross are found all over the world - in India, China, Indochina, Iran, Iraq, Egypt, in countries of Europe and other places, and they are dated from III millenary BC till III millenary AD. They are important constituent element of culture of almost all nations of the world - both living now on Earth, and having lived on it earlier.
At the time of the Conquista landed in New World Spanish and Portuguese seamen and monks (since Christopher Columbus) recorded time and again with surprise that a cross was known for a long time for Indians. I have just told you about the cross stored in Cuzco. Other crosses (more often ankxs) adorned chests of statues and bas-reliefs in Palenka, Kopan and other cities of maya. The same sign has been found out on a back of a statue of Easter island.
William U. Seymur in the book "the Cross in traditions, history and culture" reports:
"The Aztec goddess of rain holds a cross in an arm, and Toltecs assert that their deity Quetzalcoatl learnt them to signs and rites of a cross, and therefore his crosier or the sceptre of authority, resembles the Egyptian crosier (ankx), and his mantle is covered by red crosses".
The cross was a common symbol of American Indians before appearence of Europeans in North and South Americas. According to I. Smirnova, North American Indians navaho wore silver crosses on theit chests which should protect them from evil ghosts. They believed that by means of a cross built from branches so that its ends precisely indicated to the north, the south, the east and the west, it was possible to heal any disease - it was necessary only for that to lay a patient on this cross. And Indians volpi during their sacred dances holded in their hands an emblem imaged a black swastika on a white background, environed by beams.
Very many crosses have been discovered at archeological excavations in Peru and Mexico. At first explorers thought, that it was "crosses of winds", symbolising four directions of wind and coming of rains. But then there was a supposition that they inherent a sun or star character.
Cross honouring called at first the protest of many followers of Christian religion only because it was considered as "a pagan symbol". But for the great mass of young Christians the cross was a customary sacred sign. In IV century the church officially recognised and legitimised it.
Cross - a many million year symbol of solar gods from Hyperborea
Thus, a cross inseparably linked with the Sun, light, universal wisdom, perpetually life or immortality. It was an integral (essential) attribute of the sun gods - Adityas, and, perhaps, other reasonable beings residing togerther with them. Sources of this symbol are lost in the heart of the centuries detached from us by many million of years, and closely relate with ancient continent Hyperborea (Svarga, Jambudvipa) where "in the beginning of centuries" white gods lived (and here). Further, separate representatives of the divine people delivered this sign all over the world. The cross began to correlate with the world harmony, life in unity with the Nature and under its laws (at identification of the Nature with alive Superorganism, which cover the Universe), peace, happiness, health, struggle against dark demonic forces to which all not similar to people reasonable inhabitants of our planet usually were attributed. Such meaning should be attached it by Adityas. However, in more late times, because of progressing of our community at the way, distinct from traced by gods (wars and destruction of the world harmony), the functions of the cross changed. Now it is represented for many, first of all, as an element of protection against all dark and demonic, and only then - as as a symbol of immortality and unity a soul with god.
Cross - schematic representation of other symbol of the Sun - a bird
Besides a cross, there are other signs which depict the Sun, or related to sun (celestial) gods. It, first of all, wide spread in ancient religions of many people a bird (more often an eagle or a hawk, for Aztecs - a humming-bird).
Look the image of the bird - two-headed eagle in the Temple of the Sacred Tomb in Jerusalem
In the "Rigveda" the Sun is repeatedly compared to a bird. It was represented by a bird and at the Slavs, Celts, Scythians and the people of Mesoamerika, for example, Aztecs. In Mesopotamia the eagle was a symbol of the midday sun, etc.
There is wide spread opinion that the cross has originated from schematic representation of a bird.
Nimbus and fravahar as symbols of the Sun
One more sign of sun gods is a nimbus (a schematic picture of radiance around a head) which symbolises divine energy, sanctity and power. The circular nimbus environ heads on images of many solar gods. They are especially characteristic for Mitra. A nimbus are usually coloured in gold colour in Christian applied art and red - in Indian. At antique gods they were blue.
Following sign of sun gods is fravahar (from Avestian "Far" - "shining")
The section "Ancient signs and symbols"
© A.V. Koltypin, 2009
I, A. Koltypin the author and translator of this work give permission to use this for any purpose except prohibited by applicable law, on condition that our authorship and hyperlink to the site http://earthbeforeflood.com is given.
Read my works "Communism and Capitalism: A 25 million year ago space confrontation (the connection between Freemasonry and Christianity, the ideology of the sun gods and secret government, Agartha - Shambala, managing the development of mankind)", "Outcome of white gods. From Hyperborea to Easter Island" and "Emancipated female society: a view from time immemorial (remote ages). About a leading role of women in the development of human civilization and the existence of states and nations, leaded by women"