Information posted on my Website and written articles created huge public response. Based on this information, films, interviews and publications were made abroad. Few groups of researchers from Israel, Canada and USA went on our tracks to Phrygian plain. According to obtained information from them, my and A. Kuznetsov's opinions about age and origins of fossilised tracks were confirmed.
Despite on this, many readers did not believe in Neogen age of fossilised wheel tracks in Turkey and such early existence of highly developed civilisations in Mediterranean. As a main counter argument, they pointed out to the fact of existence of fossilised tracks in Crimean Chufut-Kale and Eski-Kermen rock towns, with the determined age of 6-11 century AD. Traditionally, it was considered that those tracks were made by horse carts. That is why I decided to go to Crimea and research remains of fossilised tracks. Such opportunity was presented in August 2015.
What are the Chufut-Kale and Eski-Kermen fossilised tracks?
I studied known fossilised tracks in rock towns Chufut-Kale and Eski-Kermen and discovered a small field of similar tracks in Bahchisaray.
Crimean fossilised tracks are not like Phrygian plain ones. In some places they really remind of cart wheels tracks going through muddy country road which had then gone rock hard and fossilised. In other places the tracks are much wider, they look similar to tracks made by car wheels stuck into the wet ground. The main difference between Crimean and Turkish tracks is that in Phrygian plain they make wide and long fields, where they run parallel or cross each other. Crimean tracks are situated within 2-3 m wide roads, they look like U shape 30-50 cm deep trenches cut (if the ground was hard) or dug out (if the ground was soft) in limestone. Side walls of such roads are usually straight, their angle with stone base is 90 degrees. Wide roads (?) without distinctive side walls are more rare, may be due to erosion.
Crimean fossilised wheel tracks peculiarities. Conclusions made after studying them
I went around all remaining Chufut-Kale and Eski-Kermen fossilised wheel tracks few times, carefully studying width and depth of the tracks, their surface, bottom, overlap between wheel tracks within same trench, erosion and secondary changes. All my research can be read in section "My Researchers", where you can find many track photos.
I will mark most significant peculiarities of Crimean tracks below. This will allow to make conclusion about their origin and age.
1) As it was written above rock towns Chufut-Kale and Eski-Kermen tracks were made by different wheeled vehicles. Narrow and deep track pairs, most likely, are cart wheel tracks, from carts, which had been driven loaded on those roads. Wider and less deep tracks, sized to modern car wheels, in all probability, really are the fossilised wheel tracks. The third, not so well distinctive type of tracks, - not wide and single, as a rule within track pairs, reminds mostly of light motorcycles or mopeds.
2) Chufut-Kale and Eski-Kermen rock town tracks and my discovery of part of the ancient road in Bahchisaray appear to be traces of the vehicle wheels left in wet and soft (boggy and plastic like) ground, similar in consistency to ground road after rain. Careful study of the different track patches showed that there were not a single spot, which would give a slightest reason to say that transport vehicles, loaded carts or cars, went on stone road. On contrary, one can see everywhere that wheels sank in mud. Their tracks, almost always clear, have practically no differences from modern cars or carts tracks on wet ground road or wet concrete.
3) Wheel traces on some parts of the roads are hardly seen. Their depth sometimes is only a few centimetres or millimetres Those places quite often have a rough surface. I have three explanations:
1) Transport vehicle driving on rough terrain with hummocks, on almost (but not quite) dry lime soil 2) The following mixing of wet lime ground possibly by people and animals 3) Limestone erosion along crossing road and tracks cracks.
4) Narrow and deep parallel grooves, seen in some road parts, with width comparable to cart wheels or smaller, appear to be as a result of track sides sinking in one occasion and rain water erosion of earlier existed tracks in another occasion. Similar structures are widely spread on modern mountain roads, which had been used for few dozens of years by tourists on 4x4s.
Climbing Eski-Kermen, Tepe-Kermen, Mangup-Kale and other Crimean rock towns, I attentively studied such roads. My researchers showed, that mountain road patched with regular car traffic during many years on base limestones have not even a hint of the tracks. Limestones surface can be even or in cracks with described above uneven rocky landscape in places. Only car wheels mud traces on light limestone surface show that those roads where used by cars.
The car tracks depth on lime colluvia does not exceed few millimetres, or more often does not even exist. Roads parts, with limestones covered by a layer of soil, have visible distinctive car tracks. Their depth varies between few and few dozen centimetres. Deep grooves can be seen sometimes on steep and curvy parts of the roads, where even 4x4 cannot pass. This is a result of rain water erosion in old tracks. The same picture can be seen in Chufut-Kale.
Crimean roads have similar origins, most likely. They were not cut in hard limestone but they were dug out when lime silt was not hard limestone yet, it was wet and soft or half hard, easy for digging.
6) Roads dug out in lime ground (even cut in limestone, it is not important) create wide road network connecting Crimean rock towns. Such roads with tracks within "towns", climbing (or descending) on mountain sides towards town gates can be seen in Chufut-Kale and Eski-Kermen. They are getting covered by layers of Quaternary colluvial, deluvial sediments and modern roads. One fragment of such road network stretching for about 50 m was discovered by me in Bahchisaray between Old Town and car service station. It was covered from both sides by soft Quaternary depositions with the modern road on top.
7) Studying tracks and containing them narrow U shape roads in some places in Chufut-Kale and looking through their photos gave me thoughts that at some stage some parts of the roads could be used for trains. Grooves cut in the ground substituted rail tracks. However, this is in controversy with the absence of deep groove in many road parts and overlapping tracks. Probably, these roads were used differently in different times and had various transport vehicles. Possibly, they eroded significantly since when they were built.
8) Fossilised tracks in rock town Eski-Kermen, according to A. Kuznetsov from Taurian National University of Simferopol ("Eski-Kermen mountain range as Crimean geological landmark" 2014) were found in nummulitic limes of Simferopol layer of Eocene epoch, Paleogene period (47.8-41.2 million years). My attempt to find information about age of limestone tracks in rock town Chufut-Kale and Bahchisaray was futile. That is why I can only judge their age according to geological maps of Crimean Bahchisaray district. Chufut-Kale and Bahchisaray tracks are situated mainly in limestone and chalky clay grounds of Danish, Inkerman and Kachinskiy layers/horizontal depositions of Palaeocene epoch, Paleogene period (66-56 million year ago) and largely in nummulites of Simferopol layer of Eocene epoch, Paleogene period (48.8-41.2 million years ago). Taking into account dominant spread of Palaeocene chalky clays and limestones, we can have a guess, based on the other work of A. Kuznetsov ("Mangup mountain range as geological landmark of Ukraine" 2011) that fossilised wheel tracks in Chufut-Kale and Bahchisaray were preserved in Palaeocene limestones and chalky clays, uncut Danish and Inkerman layers, aged 66-56 million years.
Geological history of Chufut-Kale, Eski-Kermen and other Crimean mountain areas
Does it mean that wheeled transport vehicles, which made those tracks, were driving on wet and soft (boggy, plastic) lime silt (ground) in Palaeocene (66-56 million years ago) of Eocene (47.8-41.2 million years ago)? Of course not!
Such confidence is based on geological history of that area. Crimea is one of the Russian territories, where practical studies of Moscow State University, Geological Prospecting Institute and other universities often take place. That is why Crimean geological structure and history have little doubts. Ocean Tethys existed on the place of Crimea dividing Eurasia, Africa and Arabia in Palaeocene and Eocene. Limes and chalky clays were amassed on its shelfs. Consequently, Crimea did not have land then.
Africa, Arabia and Eurasia collision began on the boarder of Paleogene and Neogen periods (23 million years ago). The most significant stage of deformation in Crimea took place on the boarder of early and middle Miocene (15.9 million year ago), during which former parts of ocean shelf raised to the surface and formed slightly inclined limestone surfaces - cuests (table mountains). Mountain Crimea became land exactly then, including Chufut-Kale, Eski-Kermen and other rock towns.
Shallow seas of Paratethys and Tethys still existed around new island, mountain Crimea, during the most of middle Miocene (15.9-11.6 million year ago).
Further significant lifting of the land with sea draining, took place between middle and late Miocene (11.6 million years ago). However, shallow seas around mountain Crimea island existed up to the middle of late Miocene (around 7.3 million years ago). The biggest part of Crimea became land only then. Contemporary Crimean landscape and river network were formed also at that time (at the end of late Miocene).
Wheeled transport vehicles driving in Crimea at the beginning of Miocene (around 15 million years ago)
Based on above, we can conclude that wheeled transport vehicles which left their tracks in Chufut-Kale, Eski-Kermen and Bahchisaray, had been driven on territory which then became Crimea in middle or late Miocene between 15.9 and 7.3 million years ago. The absence of middle-late Miocene sea sedimentations in mountain Crimea lets us guess that Crimea was land at that time. It gives us chance to narrow down time span, during which those wheel tracks were made. Mountain Crimea road network, connecting rock towns, most likely was built (by digging out soft, not hard yet ground) at the beginning of middle Miocene around 15 million years ago. Cars, carts and other transport vehicles were driving on Crimean roads approximately that time. Wheel traces could hardly appear later because soft and wet lime silts must have become hard and turn into firm limestone during hundreds or thousands of years. More over, according to various nation's tales, sun, which appeared in the sky then, was so hot that it dried wet earth quickly.
Fossilised Phrygian plain tracks in Turkey were made also 15 million years ago (corrections made based on Crimean tracks study).
We, A. Koltypin the authors of this work, and A.Semenov, the translator of this work, give permission to use this for any purpose except prohibited by applicable law, on condition that our authorship and hyperlink to the site http://earthbeforeflood.com is given.